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CHAPTERS 15 & 16. THE JAZZ AGE. Sacco and Vanzetti. Anarchism the Sacco and Vanzetti Trial. Ferdinando Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • CHAPTERS 15 & 16THE JAZZ AGE

  • Sacco and Vanzetti

  • Anarchism the Sacco and Vanzetti TrialFerdinando Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were anarchists who were convicted of murdering two men during a 1920 armed robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts. Anarchism is the belief that all organization or government is oppressive.After a controversial trial and a series of appeals, the two Italian immigrants were executed on August 23, 1927There is a highly politicized dispute over their guilt or innocence.

  • The Trial Vanzetti claimed that he had been selling fish at the time of the Braintree robbery. Sacco claimed that he had been in Boston applying for a passport at the Italian consulate The presiding judge was Webster Thayer. A few weeks earlier he had given a speech condemning Bolshevism and anarchism. He supported the suppression of radical speech A crucial piece of evidence was a cap that was left at the scene of the crime. It was supposedly Saccos, but when he tried it on, it was obviously too small. Thayer told the jury to ignore this. Most people believed that the trial was about race and immigrations rather than guilt and innocence.

  • KKKThe KKK was almost out of business by the 1900s. Fear of immigrants brought new recruits.The new KKK expanded their hatred.

  • New KKKWhere the old KKK was primarily about segregation. The New KKK pointed their hatred at Jews, Catholics, foreigners, anything seen as different and unAmerican. Before, the KKK was seen as being made up of lower class white trash. The hired a public relations firm to advertise the New KKK and make it acceptable for middle class people to join. They were successful.

  • National Origins ActThe National Origins Act was passed by Congress in response to fears of immigration.The Act placed specific quotas on the number of each nationality or race or religion that could come to the US.Mexicans were specifically excluded from the quotas to due political pressure by southwestern politicians.

  • Immigrations Acts of 1921-24 & 29A series of acts limiting immigration were passed in the 1920s. These acts were in response to the immigration surge of the late 19th and early 20th century and in response to the Red Scare.People feared two things with continued immigration: miscegnation and bolshevism.

  • EugenicsAnother response to the immigration surge and changed race relations was an interest in Eugenics.Eugenics is considered to be the science of selective breeding. The idea was that some kind of pure race could be attained.Many, many people believed this idea.

  • FlappersFlapper was a term applied to a "new breed" of young women who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to jazz, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior. Flappers were seen as brash for wearing excessive makeup, drinking, treating sex in a casual manner, smoking, driving automobiles and otherwise flouting social and sexual norms.Flappers had their origins in the period of liberalism, social and political turbulence and increased transatlantic cultural exchange that followed the end of the First World War, as well as the export of American jazz culture to Europe.

  • Margaret MeadA woman that served as a role model for the new women of the 20s was Margaret Mead. Her book Coming of Age in Samoa examined sexual ideas in foreign countries and shed new light on American attitudes toward sex.Mead was a champion of broadened sexual mores within traditional religious life

  • FundamentalismThe 1920s saw the rise of fundamentalist religions. Fundamentalism is the belief that every word of the Bible is absolute fact and should be followed as such.Fundamentalism grew out of Americans fear of the changing roles of women, negroes, young people and materialistic society.

  • Billy SundayBilly Sunday was a leading fundamentalist preacher. He was an ex-professional baseball player that found he could make more money preaching. His revivals attracted 100s of thousands of people. He was a leader in the Prohibition Movement.

  • Aimee Semple McPhersonAimee Semple McPherson was a Los Angeles, California evangelist and media celebrity in the 1920s and 1930s. She founded the Foursquare Church.McPherson has been noted as a pioneer in the use of modern media, especially radio, which she drew upon through the growing appeal of popular entertainment in North America.

  • Scopes TrialScopes Monkey Trial occurred in 1925.A high school biology teacher John Scopes was accused of violating the a Tennessee law which made it unlawful to teach evolution.Scopes was found guilty, but the verdict was overturned on a technicality and he was never brought back to trial. The trial drew intense national publicity, as national reporters flocked to the small town of Dayton, to cover the big-name lawyers representing each side. William Jennings Bryan, three time presidential candidate for the Democrats, argued for the prosecutionClarence Darrow, the famed defense attorney, spoke for Scopes. The trial saw modernists, who said religion was consistent with evolution, against fundamentalists who said the word of God as revealed in the Bible trumped all human knowledge.

  • ProhibitionThe 18th Amendment prohibited the making or selling of alcohol in the United States.This was a result of the reforms of the late nineteenth century and was aimed primarily at immigrants in the cities. The leadership of the prohibition movement was located in rural areas.

  • The Volstead ActThe Volstead Act was passed in 1919 was the enforcement legislation of the Prohibition. This act expanded the police powers of government to control private behaviors previously thought to be outside of governmental interference. Police powers are the powers of government that are used to punish or control behavior.

  • The Result of ProhibitionThe primary result of Prohibition was to make organized crime in the United States a profitable business.The idea behind Prohibition was to lessen the use of alcohol. The opposite happened.People used as much or more alcohol after the 18th amendment. The lure of illegality aided this.Crime soared in America as a result of the 18th Amendment and is the primary image that most Americans have of the 1920s.

  • The MafiaThe Mafia or Cosa Nostra was a Sicilian import that had spent the majority of its American existence in a 12 square block of Little Italy in New York.Prohibition made bootlegging or the making of illegal alcohol very profitable.Gangsters opened illegal bars called speakeasies and created huge organized crime organizations.One of the most famous was created in Chicago by Al Capone

  • End of ProhibitionThe roaring 20s saw the prohibition of alcohol and the rise of crime.By the time of the Great Depression, the American people had had enough of government engaging in social experiments such as prohibition.The 21st Amendment ended Prohibition in 1933.

  • 19th AmendmentWomens Suffrage or the right to vote was attained with the 19th Amendment in 1920.This was the result of over a century of work by womens rights activists.

  • Lucky LindyCharles Augustus Lindbergh "Lucky Lindy" and "The Lone Eagle was the first pilot to fly across the Atlantic alone.Lindbergh, then a U.S. Air Mail pilot, emerged from virtual obscurity to almost instantaneous world fame as the result of his solo non-stop flight from New York's Long Island to Le Bourget Field in Paris, France, a distance of nearly 3,600 miles in the single-seat, single-engine monoplane Spirit of St. Louis.

  • RadioRadio dominated the Twenties, with roughly 3 million Americans owning radios by 1923. Most listeners still used crystal sets with earphones to receive news and bulletins, advertising and music. Later radios were developed that were large pieces of furniture that were present in most homes. Radio networks like ABC, NBC, CBS and RKO featured music broadcast live, news, serials and religious programs.The programs that were the biggest to come out of the 1920s were soap operas (One Life to Live and As the World Turns) ,comedies like Ma and Pa Kettle and serials like the Green Hornet, Superman and the Shadow.Baseball and Boxing became huge events and became the most important sporting events in America because of radio particulary with the arrival of baseball star Babe Ruth and Boxing champion Jack Dempsey.Football was also popular particularly with the arrival of the first great football celebrity, Red Grange. Radio ushered in the age of Mass Media or the presence of media in every event.

  • Harlem RenaissanceThe Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the 1920s and 1930s. At the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. Historians disagree as to when the Harlem Renaissance began and ended. The Harlem Renaissance is unofficially recognized to have spanned from about 1919 until the early or mid 1930s. Many of its ideas lived on much longer.

  • The Harlem RenaissanceThe Harlem Renaissance was a result of black culture finding the freedom of northern cities following the Great Migration.Writers, musicians, dancers, artists and designers made up the Harlem Renaissance.This was the most important artistic movement in US history.

  • Langston HughesJames Mercer Langston Hughes was an American novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. He was one of the earliest innovators of the new literary art form jazz poetry. Hughes is one of the most famous of the Harlem Renaissance writers.

  • JazzJazz is a style of music that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in New Jazz is set off from other musical styles in its emp