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Download Chapter Packet and Circuit Switching. Chapter Objectives Explain the concept of packet switching Give sample application areas of packet switching Describe

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter Packet and Circuit Switching
  • Slide 2
  • Chapter Objectives Explain the concept of packet switching Give sample application areas of packet switching Describe circuit switching Compare and contrast packet switching with circuit switching
  • Slide 3
  • Chapter Modules Packet switching Packet switching applications Circuit switching applications
  • Slide 4
  • Module Packet Switching
  • Slide 5
  • Packet Switching Preview Explain the concept of a path or a route taken by a packet Study the difference between static and dynamic paths? Relate appropriately the terms packet switching and circuit switching to the terms dynamic and static paths Explore the path taken by a packets in dynamic routing when a packet travels from its origin to its destination
  • Slide 6
  • The Concept of Path in Communication A path is a route for data to travel between two nodes in a network Dynamic path In this case, the path often changes from packet to packet Example: Packet Switching Static path Path is initially established and it remains unchanged for the duration of the communication session Example: Circuit Switching
  • Slide 7
  • Packet Switching Network Los Angeles New York Packet 2 Packet 1 Miami
  • Slide 8
  • Salient Points of Packet Switching Path Each packet may take a different path to its destination Best path is heuristically determined at each node Packet switching Path may be switched among packets Hence, the term packet switching
  • Slide 9
  • Key Words Packet and circuit switching Dynamic and static paths
  • Slide 10
  • End of Module
  • Slide 11
  • Module Advantages and Disadvantages of Packet Switching
  • Slide 12
  • Questions What are the major advantages and disadvantages of packet switching? Could the Internet be called a packet switching network? How does packet switching help in supporting multiple communication sessions? How does a web server support multiple access to its contents? Explain in terms of packets that travel from the web server to their various destinations.
  • Slide 13
  • Questions (continued) What are the implications of packet switching to the transmission of audio and video in real time? How are the above problems addressed in streaming?
  • Slide 14
  • Major Advantages Better utilization of the network segments in terms of the usage of the network paths Ability to engage in multiple communication sessions
  • Slide 15
  • Dynamic Assignment of Paths Los Angeles New York Miami Las Vegas
  • Slide 16
  • Support for Multiple Communication Sessions Los Angeles New York Miami Las Vegas Session 1 Session 2
  • Slide 17
  • Disadvantage or a Concern Packets may not arrive at their destination in the order in which they were originally transmitted The above possibility exists because of the different paths that are taken by the different packets
  • Slide 18
  • Order of Arrival of Packets Los Angeles New York Packet 2 Packet 1 Miami Packet 2 may arrive earlier than Packet 1.
  • Slide 19
  • Packet Assembly Packets are assembled to preserve the order of transmission Packets arriving earlier are held in a buffer The order of arrival is critical and in certain cases the order is time sensitive as well
  • Slide 20
  • Transmission of Audio and Video in Packet Switching Transmission of audio and video are time sensitive Timely arrival of packet is important The process that would ensure the orderly and timely arrival of data packets is known as streaming Streaming also compresses the data to minimize bandwidth requirements thus ensuring that the packets have adequate bandwidth to travel to the destination in the order in which they are supposed to arrive at the destination
  • Slide 21
  • Buffering in Streaming Streamed audio or video is often buffered to ensure that the audio or video is played continuously
  • Slide 22
  • Advantages And Disadvantages Advantages Efficient use of the network paths Engage in multiple sessions Disadvantages Additional hardware and software resources are required to assemble and route the packets If real-time continuity is stipulated then the data must be subjected to a process known as streaming
  • Slide 23
  • Special Concerns Audio and video transmission Streaming is used Voice Over IP (VoIP) is designed deploy telephony over the Internet
  • Slide 24
  • Newer Advancements for Real Time Transmission of Information Faster Internet speed Better technology IPv6 Better streaming technologies
  • Slide 25
  • Questions What are the major advantages and disadvantages of packet switching? Could the Internet be called as a packet switching network? How does packet switching help in supporting multiple communication sessions? How does a web server support multiple access to its contents? Explain in terms of packets that travel from the web server to their various destinations on the Internet.
  • Slide 26
  • Questions (continued) What are the implications of packet switching to the transmission of audio and video in real time? Relate the above to Voice over IP transmission. How are the above problems addressed in streaming?
  • Slide 27
  • End of Module
  • Slide 28
  • MODULE Packet Switching Applications
  • Slide 29
  • Questions Give a simple example of packet switching application Relate packet switching to multiple session applications on the Internet and give examples of multiple session applications Describe audio transmission challenges on packet-switched networks
  • Slide 30
  • Questions (Continued) List the packet switching technologies used in WANs Explain the emergence of the concept of fixed length packets or cells in packet switching networks Name a cell based transmission technology and state its applications
  • Slide 31
  • Internet: An Application of Packet Switching Los Angeles New York Packet N1 Packet M1 Miami Server in Los Angeles supports multiple access to the web over a packet switched connection. Internet Server Ramp
  • Slide 32
  • Support for Multiple Sessions Los Angeles New York Packet 2 Packet 1 Miami Packets are displayed on different sessions on the screen. Houston Session LA Session HU
  • Slide 33
  • Applications Using Multiple- Sessions Sharing Collaboration Multiple access to an Internet server etc.
  • Slide 34
  • Packet Delivery Sharing of Word document on Internet under Microsoft NetMeeting Packets from origin 1: N1, N2 Packets from Origin 2: M1, M2 SCREEN
  • Slide 35
  • Audio Transmission Over Packet Switching Network Relatively high speeds are required on the network Data compression and other techniques are used to ensure continuity know as streaming Sample applications: Audio streaming on the Internet RealAudio is an example of a streaming software
  • Slide 36
  • Usage of Packet Switching Large computer networks with multiple routers WAN in general Internet in particular
  • Slide 37
  • Packet Switching WAN Technologies Past and Present X.25 Packet Switching Present and Near Future Frame Relay Present and Future Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) ATM is also known as Cell Relay
  • Slide 38
  • ATM Asynchronous Transmission Method (ATM) Based on fixed length packets Switches instead of routers are used to route the information on a network This is the emerging technology in WAN transmission (Include more information on ATM)
  • Slide 39
  • Recollecting the Concept of Cell Packet varies in size Cell is of fixed length Data
  • Slide 40
  • Questions Give a simple example of packet switching application Relate packet switching to multiple session applications on the Internet and give examples of multiple session applications Describe audio transmission challenges on packet-switched networks
  • Slide 41
  • Questions (Continued) List the packet switching technologies used in WANs Explain the emergence of the concept of fixed length packets or cells in packet switching networks Name a cell based transmission technology and state its applications
  • Slide 42
  • End of Module
  • Slide 43
  • MODULE 5 Circuit Switching
  • Slide 44
  • Questions Explain the concepts of circuit switching. How does it function? What are the advantages and disadvantages of circuit switching? Name some applications of circuit switching Compare circuit switching with packet switching
  • Slide 45
  • Circuit Switching Network Los Angeles New York Circuit established and maintained for entire duration of communication. Established Circuit Switch
  • Slide 46
  • Defining Characteristics of Circuit Switching Establish (switch) a path (circuit) between two nodes of communication Maintain the circuit for the full duration of communication session
  • Slide 47
  • Advantages of Circuit Switching Continuity assured in the order of transmission Audio can be

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