chapter one: black december, myths, fear and december, myths, fear and sharks ... moments before...

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  • PLEASE NOTE THIS IS A DRAFT IN PROGRESS DO NOT CITE

    Chapter One: Black December, Myths, Fear and Sharks

    The sea along the Natal coast is subject to increasing pressures from mans

    activities 1

    Melissa van Oordt

    Masters Student

    Howard College Campus, Durban, University of KwaZulu-Natal

    For Gods sake, HELP me2

    Black December: December 1957 April 1958: On 30th December 1957:

    moments before the attack a shark patrol plane passed overhead. The

    shark went straight for the victims [sic] buttocks and wheeled for a

    second attack when Mr. Brokensha grabbed the sharks tail. The animal

    threw him off and returned to attackthe shark severed the victims left

    arm and then swam off.3

    Black December was described by the Natal Mercury (1958) as an: unprecedented reign of terror which virtually put an end to sea-bathing

    along the South Coast and sent thousands of visitors streaming to net-

    protected beaches, the marauding sharks have cast a shadow of death

    over Southern Africas premier holiday playground4

    1 G Cliff and RB Wilson Natal Sharks Boards field guide to Sharks and other marine animals Paper Print, Westmead, Pinetown 1994 p 3 2 The last words record from 5th shark attack victim: Killer Shark was furthest inshore yet The Natal Mercury Durban, Friday, January 10, 1958 p 1 3 Natal Shark Board Archives (NSBA) South African Shark Attack File (SASA): KwaZulu-Natal (KZN): File N57/4: File: Julia Painting 30 December 1957 (Shark Attack File managed by Geremy Cliff) 4 South Coast Shark Attacks Now Total Five The Natal Mercury Durban, Friday, January 10, 1958 p 2

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    In December 1957, the Natal5 South coast had seen four shark attacks:6

    Between January and April 1958 a further three attacks occurred along the South

    coast of Natal. During that period, five of the attacks were fatal. Thereafter, this

    period was aptly dubbed Black December. The attack described in the opening

    paragraph has become central in defining both scientific and popular response to

    this Black December, which would see both new scientific research into sharks

    and a heightening of human fears of shark attack, a fear which was largely the

    consequence of powerful myths. Although this attack had occurred in the same

    location as all three of the prior attacks and the bodies injuries were just as

    gruesome, this attack became infamous for several reasons, namely, the

    frequency of attacks during December, but also the age and sex of the victim.

    Her attack was vividly recorded by the Natal press in 1957 as thus the

    murderous scavenger let go, but not until it had bitten off the young girls arm at

    the shoulder, and severely mauled her body. 7 Apart from the physical

    characteristics of the injured party and her survival of this traumatic experience,

    her medical treatment following the attack was recorded as the first to use IV

    fluids in South Africa. 8

    Although statistics of shark attack were scanty, by 1957, the chance of attack

    had increased and it now became apparent that the supervision and policies

    employed by the lifeguards for prevention of attack had been futile. Measures

    implemented had included: the banning of certain costumes it had been

    determined that light coloured objects were closely related bait or to the prey of

    sharks9 - and swimming had been restricted to knee-deep paddling.10 Prior to

    1958, many methods of prevention in Natal were based on what was in fact

    unfounded information and scientific studies on the causes of attack only became

    prominent 1959. This new wave of scientific research occurred because shark 5 For the historical context of this thesis, KwaZulu-Natal will be referred to as Natal, until chronologically the name changed has occurred. 6 From here onwards attack shall refer to shark attack, unless specified. 7 How it happened: Eyewitness Accounts Doctors fight for shark victims life The Natal Mercury Tuesday, December 31, 1957, p 1 8 NSBA: SASA: KZN: File N57/4 30 December 1957 The use IV fluids marks the growth of South Africa shark attack medically treatment which was internationally recognised in the 1960s (chapter four) 9 NSBA: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) File: Memorandum on Anti-shark measures CSIR: National Physical Research Laboratory (NPRL) May 1958, Pretoria, p 9 10 NSBA: SASA: KZN: N57/4 File: Julia Painting 30 December 1957

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    attack was coming to be viewed as a national problem and not just a local

    concern anymore. Increasing local concern about threat of shark attack was

    noted as early as in mid-December 1957, after the second attack of that month.

    The Natal Mercury recorded the following statement: Confidence that some

    means of combating the shark menace on the South Coast would be evolved

    through experience and research was expressed by the Administrator of Natal,

    Mr. D. G. Shepstone.11

    A month after this statement was published, as reported in the local press, the

    Natal Angling Board stated that: [there is a] possible relationship between

    inshore whaling and the recent shark attacks12 Several measures and ideas to

    prevent shark attacks, such as the banning of inshore whaling, were posed by

    various local individuals and groups, this will be discussed in Chapter 3.

    However, it was only in May 1958 that the Council of Scientific and Industrial

    Research of South Africa became involved in shark research.13 The roles of

    scientific and governmental foundations - such as the Department of Tourism,

    Natal Sharks Board, Oceanographic Research Institute, Council of Scientific and

    Industrial Research the National Physical Research Laboratory and the local

    Beach Committee, will be discussed in chapter 4. Interestingly, most introductory

    shark research was based on myths and speculation, which later developed into

    structured scientific research.

    Myths about sharks

    Many studies have shown that humans have shifting perceptions and

    constructions of their surrounding environment. In turn, these interpretations or

    representations have contributed to the development of what maybe termed as

    myths about the environment.14 Myths are influenced by cultural, social and

    political influences within societies. I hope to show how these aspects form an

    11 Shepstone Confident in Shark War The Natal Mercury Friday, January 18, 1958 12 Inshore whaling ban to beat sharks urged The Natal Mercury Friday, 24 January, 1958 13 NSBA: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research File (CSIR): Memorandum on Anti-shark measures in CSIR: National Physical Research Laboratory (NPRL), May 1958, Pretoria, 14 This argument is based on W Cronons Wilderness dualism from W Cronon The trouble with Wilderness; or, Getting back to the Wrong Nature Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature 1996 Harcourt Brace and Company, United States of America pp 69 - 90

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    intricate spiders web in the development of particular myths. In his work on

    nationhood myths American historian WH McNeill writes, Myth lies at the basis

    of human [culture]. Many myths have their basis in fear.15 For the purpose of this

    thesis, the diverse social aspects of culture will ultimately differentiate and set

    apart individual social constructions of ideas and perceptions of environments,

    societies, species and nature from one social unit to another, in this case sharks.

    Historian J. Tosh in, The Pursuit of History, defines one aspect of culture as such

    the belief that seemingly bizarre and irrational features in fact reflect a

    coherence of thought and behaviour that unites a group of people.16 What Tosh

    describes as irrational features can occasionally be interpreted in the form of a

    myth. He continues to stay that myths can be dangerous [-] they induce

    misguided attitudes and responses. 17 Although Tosh is referring to learning

    about the past and mythical versions of history, his notion, similar to that of

    McNeill can be applied to my thesis to explain the human construction and

    representation of sharks, myths about sharks, human attitudes towards sharks

    and the human relationship with sharks.

    JR McNeill, and American environmental historian, wrote in his paper on the

    Nature and Culture of Environmental History that environmental history is the

    history of the mutual relations between humankind and the rest of nature.18 The

    core concern of environmental history is the interactions between nature (animals

    and environments) and humans. D Worster, author of the seminal Dust Bowl,

    states that both nature and culture share an inter-dependent relationship19, which

    is continually undergoing change. Similarly, W Cronon, both an environmental

    historian and historical geographer, argues that neither nature nor culture is

    static.20 In agreement with both authors, is author, N Rothfels, who claims that

    societies themselves continuously change, thus leading to changing human

    15 WH McNeill Mythistory and Other Essays 1986 University of Chicago Press, Chicago p 23 [ ] my insert 16