chapter fourteen health. copyright © houghton mifflin company. all rights reserved.14-2 health...

Download Chapter Fourteen Health. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-2 Health Psychology The application of psychology to the promotion

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter Fourteen Health
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-2 Health Psychology The application of psychology to the promotion of physical health and the prevention and treatment of illness. But isnt physical illness a purely biological event?
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-3 Figure 14.1: Leading Causes of Death, 1900-2000
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-4 Stress and Health
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-5 Stress An unpleasant state of arousal that arises when we perceive that the demands of an event threaten our ability to cope effectively. Subjective appraisal of the situation determines: How we will experience the stress. What coping strategies we will use.
  • Slide 6
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-6 Figure 14.2: The Stress-and-Coping Process
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-7 What Causes Stress?
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-8 Scarring Effects of Natural Disasters (Krug et al., 1998)
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-9 Crises and Catastrophes Stressors: Anything that causes stress. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A person experiences enduring physical and psychological symptoms after an extremely stressful event.
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-10 Major Life Events Change itself may cause stress by forcing us to adapt to new circumstances. Is change, positive or negative, necessarily harmful? No support that positive stressors are as harmful as negative stressors. Impact of change depends on person and how change is interpreted.
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-11 Putting Common Sense to the Test The accumulation of daily hassles does more to make people sick than catastrophes or major life changes. Answer: True Lets see why!
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-12 Microstressors: The Hassles of Everyday Life Most common source of stress arises from the daily hassles that irritate us. e.g., environmental factors. Microstressors place a constant strain on us. The accumulation of daily hassles contributes more to illness than do major life events.
  • Slide 13
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-13 Figure 14.3: Stress in the Dormitory Baum & Valins, 1977.
  • Slide 14
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-14 How Does Stress Affect the Body?
  • Slide 15
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-15 Putting Common Sense to the Test Like humans, zebras get ulcers. Answer: False Lets see why!
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-16 Figure 14.4: The General Adaptation Syndrome
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-17 What Stress Does to the Heart Type A Behavior Pattern: Characterized by extremes of competitive striving for achievement, a sense of time urgency, hostility, and aggression. A risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD)? Hostility appears to be the main toxic ingredient in CHD.
  • Slide 18
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-18 Table 14.1: How Hostile Is Your Pattern of Behavior? From Anger Kills: 17 Strategies by Redford B. Williams, M.D., and Virginia Williams, Ph.D. Used by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-19 Why Is Hostility and CHD Linked? Cardiovascular system becomes overworked. Hostile people are less health conscious. Hostile people are physiologically reactive. In tense social situations they exhibit more intense cardiovascular reactions.
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-20 Putting Common Sense to the Test Stress can weaken the heart, but it cannot affect the immune system. Answer: False Lets see why!
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-21 What Stress Does to the Immune System Stress compromises the bodys immune system. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI): A subfield of psychology that examines the links among psychological factors, the brain and nervous system, and the immune system.
  • Slide 22
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-22 Figure 14.5: Pathways from Stress to Illness
  • Slide 23
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-23 Figure 14.6: Stress Duration and Illness From A. Baum and S. Valins, Architecture and Social Behavior: Psychological Studies of Social Density.
  • Slide 24
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-24 Process of Appraisal
  • Slide 25
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-25 Attributional and Explanatory Styles Seligman (1975): Depression results from learned helplessness. Abramson et al. (1989): Depression is a state of hopelessness brought on by the negative self-attributions people make for failure. Depressive explanatory style
  • Slide 26
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-26 Figure 14.7: Explanatory Styles and Depression PSYCHOLOGY 3/E by Kassin, Saul, (c) 1997. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. From Psychology, 3rd Edition by Saul Kassin. Copyright (c) 1997. Reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  • Slide 27
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-27 Hardiness Personality Style Individuals exhibit three characteristics: Commitment. Challenge. Control. Hardiness serves as a buffer against stress. Perception of control is most important factor.
  • Slide 28
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-28 Perception of Control The expectation that our behaviors can produce satisfying outcomes. Self-efficacy: Feelings of competence A state of mind that varies from one specific task and situation to another.
  • Slide 29
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-29 Putting Common Sense to the Test When it comes to physical health, research does not support popular beliefs about the power of positive thinking. Answer: FalseLets see why!
  • Slide 30
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-30 Optimism and Hope Optimism is a generalized tendency to expect positive outcomes. Characterized by a nondepressive explanatory style. Health can spring from optimism, as evident by the placebo effect.
  • Slide 31
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-31 Figure 14.8: Hopelessness and the Risk of Death TEMP CREDIT LINE: Everson, S. A. et al. (1996). Hopelessness and risk of mortality and incidence of myorcardial infarction and cancer. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 121-133. Reprinted by permission. From S.A. Everson, et al., "Hopelessness and Risk of Mortality and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cancer," Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 58, 121-133. Reprinted with permission of Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  • Slide 32
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-32 Pollyannas Health Positive thinking cannot guarantee good health. Victims of illness do not just have a bad attitude. Limits to positive thinking. Especially if it leads us to see ourselves and events in ways that are not realistic.
  • Slide 33
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-33 Ways of Coping with Stress
  • Slide 34
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-34 Table 14.2: Ways of Coping with Stress From Carver, C.S., M.F. Scheier, and J.K. Weintraub (1989). "Assessing Coping Strategies: A Theoretically Based Approach." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267-283. Copyright (c) 1989 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.
  • Slide 35
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-35 Coping Strategies Problem-focused coping Emotion-focused coping Proactive coping
  • Slide 36
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-36 Problem-Focused Coping In dealing with essential tasks, it is better to confront and control than to avoid. Why is not always a beneficial approach? Can be physiologically taxing. Can lead to development of an over- controlling, stress-inducing Type A pattern of behavior.
  • Slide 37
  • Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.14-37 Emotion-Focused Coping: Shutting Down One way to react to stress is by shutting down and trying to deny or suppress the unpleasant thoughts and feelings. Distraction can be an adaptive form of avoidance coping. Concealing ones innermost thoughts and feeling