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  • Chapter 8Supporting Your IdeasCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;any rental, lease, or lending of the program

  • Types of Supporting MaterialFacts and StatisticsTestimonyExamplesNarrativesCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Facts and StatisticsMost objective type of supportCan be independently verifiedStatistics are numerical factsImportant for unfamiliar topicsImportant for controversial topicsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • FactsCan be shown true or falseCan be compromised by adding opinionsMust usually rely on others to verifyCan be influenced by cultural environmentCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • StatisticsNumerical factsDescribe sizeIllustrate trendsMake predictionsShow relationships

    Round off numbers to simply show magnitudeUse precise figures when topic is controversialUse care when truncating graphsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • StatisticsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • StatisticsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Evaluating Facts and StatisticsRelevance to purposeRecency of dataRepresentative of subjectFrom credible sourcesConsistent with other reportsFree from biasComplete informationCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Using Facts and StatisticsCheck with several sources to verifySeek sources with no vested interestDo not distort the meaning of informationProvide the latest data availableSupplement with examplesClarify with presentation aidsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Ways to Use Factual DataDefinitions translate into listeners languageExplanations add more detailClarify ideasDemonstrate how something worksDescriptions provide word picturesCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • TestimonyCites words or ideas of othersProvides witnesses in your behalf

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  • Expert TestimonyFrom those qualified to speak on topicLets you borrow credibilityImportant with certain types of topicsInnovative topicsUnfamiliar topicsTechnical topicsControversial topicsCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Lay TestimonyVoice of the peopleAdds authenticityAdds compassionOften addresses consequencesCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Prestige TestimonyRespected public figuresNot necessarily expert in topic areaSource of inspirationCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Using TestimonySelect sources listeners respectQuote or paraphrase accuratelyPoint out qualifications of sourceUse only expert testimony to validate ideasUse lay testimony to build identificationUse prestige testimony to enhance ideas

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  • ExamplesVerbal illustrations for your messageClarify ideasGain attentionSustain interestPersonalize topicSuggest an idea is importantAid intercultural understandingCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Types of ExamplesBrief examples often mentioned as a seriesExtended examples contain more detailFactual examples about real people or eventsHypothetical examples represent realityCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Selecting an ExampleIs it relevant?Is it representative of reality?Will it aid understanding?Will it make ideas memorable?Is it believable?Is it appropriate for my audience?Is it in good taste?Is it interesting?

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  • NarrativesTell a story to illustrate an ideaInvolve listeners in creating meaningHelp recall past and envision futureSet a mood for a speechCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Types of NarrativesEmbedded narrativeVicarious experience narrativeMaster narrativeCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Techniques for Using Supporting MaterialsComparison to something familiarContrast to emphasize differencesAnalogyCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Ethical Use of Supporting MaterialsDocument date and source of informationDont pass off opinions as factsInterpret statistics fairlyAvoid using biased informationDont quote out of contextUse examples that reflect realityInform listeners of hypothetical examplesCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Support Controversial Ideas WithFactsStatisticsFactual examplesExpert testimonyCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Clarify Abstract Ideas WithExamplesNarrativesComparisonsContrastsAnalogiesCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • With Technical Material UseFactsStatisticsExpert testimonyCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • To Arouse Emotions UseLay testimonyPrestige testimonyExamplesNarrativesCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • To Defuse Emotions UseFactsStatisticsExpert testimonyCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • With Novel Ideas UseComparisonsContrastsAnalogies Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2009

  • Deciding What Support to UseChoose impressive supporting materialsmemorable supporting materialscredible supporting materials supporting materials that lead to actionCopyright Allyn & Bacon 2009


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