Chapter 7 Total Quality Management

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    Total Quality Management

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    Overview of Total Quality

    Management (TQM)

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    TQM Defined

    The Japanese Union of Scientists & Engineers(JUSE) defines TQM as:-

    Total Quality Management (TQM) is a set ofsystematic activities carried out by the entireorganization to effectively and efficientlyachieve company objectives so as to provide

    products and services with a level of qualitythat satisfies customers, at the appropriatetime and price

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    Demings PDCA Cycle

    Plan what is

    needed

    Doit

    Check that it works

    Act to correct any

    problems orimprove

    performance

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    Demings 14 Points

    1. Consistency of Purpose is a must for continualimprovement of the product

    2. Continuous change and innovation is a must forsurvival

    3. Quality cannot be achieved only by inspection

    4. Lowest Price should not be the criteria forselecting a supplier

    5. Eliminate wastes in every functional area, not onlyproduction

    6. On the job training of employees

    7. Attitude of supervisors & managers towardsworkers should be that of a facilitator

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    Demings 14 Points

    8. Encourage workers to give quality improvementideas without fear

    9. Remove the barriers between departments &individuals

    10. Posters and slogans should be eliminated

    11. Numerical targets and work standards may affectquality

    12. Remove obstacles in the good workmanship ofhourly workers to instill a sense of pride in them.

    13. Vigorous programs of retraining and education ofemployees are must.

    14. Top Managements commitment for ever-improvingquality is a must

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    Demings 7 Deadly Diseases

    1. Lack of constancy of purpose to plan product andservice that will have a market and keep thecompany in business, and provide jobs.

    2. Emphasis on short term profits.

    3. Evaluation of performance, merit rating, or annual

    review.4. Mobility of management; job hopping.

    5. Management by use only of visible figures, withlittle or no consideration of figures that areunknown or unknowable.

    6. Excessive medical costs.7. Excessive costs of liability.

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    Jurans Quality Planning Road Map

    1. Identify who are the customers.2. Determine the needs of those customers.

    3. Translate those needs into our language.

    4. Develop a product that can respond to those needs.

    5. Optimize the product features so as to meet ourneeds as well as customer needs.

    6. Develop a process which is able to produce theproduct.

    7. Optimize the process.

    8. Prove that the process can produce the productunder operating conditions.

    9. Transfer the process to Operations.

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    The Juran Triology Diagram

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    The Spiral of Progress in Quality

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    Four Absolutes of Quality Management

    1. Quality is defined as conformance torequirements, not as 'goodness' nor

    'elegance'.

    2. The system for causing quality is prevention,not appraisal.

    3. The performance standard must be Zero

    Defects, not 'that's close enough'.

    4. The measurement of quality is the Price ofNon-conformance, not indices.

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    Crosbys 14 Steps to Quality

    Improvement

    1. Make it clear that management is committed toquality.

    2. Form quality improvement teams with seniorrepresentatives from each department.

    3. Measure processes to determine where current andpotential quality problems lie.

    4. Evaluate the cost of quality and explain its use as amanagement tool.

    5. Raise the quality awareness and personal concern of

    all employees.6. Take actions to correct problems identified through

    previous steps.

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    Crosbys 14 Steps to Quality

    Improvement

    7. Establish progress monitoring for theimprovement process.

    8. Train supervisors to actively carry out theirpart of the quality improvement programme.

    9. Hold a Zero Defects Day to let everyonerealize that there has been a change and toreaffirm management commitment.

    10. Encourage individuals to establishimprovement goals for themselves andtheir groups.

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    Crosbys 14 Steps to Quality

    Improvement

    11. Encourage employees to communicate tomanagement the obstacles they face inattaining their improvement goals.

    12. Recognize and appreciate those who

    participate.13. Establish quality councils to communicate

    on a regular basis.

    14. Do it all over again to emphasize that thequality improvement programme neverends

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    Quality Management Maturity Grid

    Maturity Stage 1: Uncertainty

    Maturity Stage 2: Awakening

    Maturity Stage 3: Enlightenment

    Maturity Stage 4: Wisdom

    Maturity Stage 5: Certainty

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    Six Quality Measurement Categories in

    Quality Management Maturity Grid

    Management understanding andattitude

    Quality organization status

    Problem handling

    Cost of quality as percentage of sales

    Quality improvement actions

    Summation of company quality

    posture

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    Aims of Quality Circles

    1. To contribute to the improvement anddevelopment of the enterprise.

    2. To respect human relations and build a

    happy workshop offering jobsatisfaction.

    3. To deploy human capabilities fully and

    draw out infinite potential.

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    Comparing the Quality Gurus

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    Kaizen Defined

    Kai in the Japanese means change,while Zen means good (for the

    better), so that Kaizen means

    improvement. Kaizen is a sub-system of JIT and implies continuous

    improvement in every sphere of

    activity.

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    Comparing the Quality Gurus

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    Savings through Kaizen

    B fit f M i t

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    Benefits of Maintenance

    Management

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    Types of Maintenance Costs

    Th Ei ht Pill f T t l P d ti

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    The Eight Pillars of Total Productive

    Maintenance (TPM)

    1. Jishu Hozen (JH) or autonomousmaintenance

    2. Kobetsu Kaizen (KK) or individualimprovement

    3. Planned maintenance (PM)4. Hinshitsu Hozen or quality maintenance

    5. Early management or developmentmanagement

    6. Education & training7. Safety, health & environment (SHE)

    8. Office TPM

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    Five S

    1. seiri (sorting out)

    2. seiton (systematic arrangement)

    3. seiso (spic-n-span)

    4. seiketsu (standardise)

    5. shitsuke (self-discipline)

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