Chapter 7 Skeletal System Bone Classification Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid Bones 7-2

Download Chapter 7 Skeletal System Bone Classification Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid Bones 7-2

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Chapter 7 Skeletal System Bone Classification Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid Bones 7-2 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Parts of a Long Bone epiphysis- expanded end of long bone distal proximal diaphysis-shaft compact bone-outer surface spongy bone- cancellous bone, which contain bony plates called trabeculae. Found at the epiphysis of long bone. periosteum-tough, vascular membrane covering the outer surface. medullary cavity -hollow space found in the diaphysis and spaces of spongy bone endosteum - thin membrane lining the cavity-contains bone forming cell. 7-3 marrow- red yellow </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Major parts of long bone </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Compact and Spongy Bone 7-4 </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Spongy bone Location: Flat bones, irregular bones, and end of long bones Osteocytes- lie within the bony plates No central canal A layer of spongy sandwiched between plates of compact bone In an adult, red marrow, is found in the spongy bone of all flat bones. In an infant, red marrow occupies the cavities of long bone. Yellow marrow stores fat and fills the cavity in an adult. Location: Flat bones, irregular bones, and end of long bones Osteocytes- lie within the bony plates No central canal A layer of spongy sandwiched between plates of compact bone In an adult, red marrow, is found in the spongy bone of all flat bones. In an infant, red marrow occupies the cavities of long bone. Yellow marrow stores fat and fills the cavity in an adult. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Compact bone In compact bone, the osteocyte's lie concentrically around a central canal. Each unit forms an osteon cemented together to form compact bone. Central canals - contains blood vessels and nerve fibers, which provide nutrients for bone cells. Transverse canals interconnect with the central canals, allowing communication between each osteon and the surface of bone. Collagen gives bone strength and inorganic salts make it hard and resistant. In compact bone, the osteocyte's lie concentrically around a central canal. Each unit forms an osteon cemented together to form compact bone. Central canals - contains blood vessels and nerve fibers, which provide nutrients for bone cells. Transverse canals interconnect with the central canals, allowing communication between each osteon and the surface of bone. Collagen gives bone strength and inorganic salts make it hard and resistant. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone osteon central canal perforating canal osteocyte lacuna bone matrix canaliculus 7-5 </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Bone Development Intramembranous Ossification bones originate within sheetlike layers of connective tissues broad, flat bones skull bones (except mandible) intramembranous bones Endochondral Ossification bones begin as hyaline cartilage most bones of the skeleton endochondral bones 7-6 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Endochondral Ossification hyaline cartilage model primary ossification center secondary ossification centers epiphyseal plate osteoblasts vs. osteoclasts 7-7 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate First layer of cells closest to the end of epiphysis resting cells anchors epiphyseal plate to epiphysis Second layer of cells many rows of young cells undergoing mitosis 7-8 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Growth at the Epiphyseal Plate Third layer of cells older cells left behind when new cells appear cells enlarging and becoming calcified Fourth layer of cells thin dead cells calcified intercellular substance 7-9 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Homeostasis of Bone Tissue Bone Resorption action of osteoclasts and parathyroid hormone Bone Deposition action of osteoblasts and calcitonin 7-10 </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Factors Affecting Bone Development, Growth, and Repair Deficiency of Vitamin A retards bone development Deficiency of Vitamin C results in fragile bones Deficiency of Vitamin D rickets, osteomalacia Insufficient Growth Hormone dwarfism Excessive Growth Hormone gigantism, acromegaly Insufficient Thyroid Hormone delays bone growth Sex Hormones promote bone formation; stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates Physical Stress stimulates bone growth 7-11 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Levers and Movement 7-14 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Skeletal Organization Axial Skeleton head neck trunk Appendicular Skeleton upper limbs lower limbs pectoral girdle pelvic girdle 7-15 </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Skeletal Organization 7-16 </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Skull Frontal (1) forehead roof of nasal cavity roofs of orbits frontal sinuses supraorbital foramen coronal suture 7-17 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Skull Parietal (2) side walls of cranium roof of cranium sagittal suture 7-18 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Skull Temporal (2) wall of cranium floor of cranium floors and sides of orbits squamosal suture external acoustic meatus mandibular fossa mastoid process styloid process zygomatic process 7-19 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Skull Occipital (1) back of skull base of cranium foramen magnum occipital condyles lambdoidal suture 7-20 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Skull Sphenoid (1) base of cranium sides of skull floors and sides of orbits sella turcica sphenoidal sinuses 7-21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Skull Ethmoid (1) roof and walls of nasal cavity floor of cranium wall of orbits cribiform plates perpendicular plate superior and middle nasal conchae ethmoidal sinuses crista gallis 7-22 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Facial Skeleton Maxillary (2) upper jaw anterior roof of mouth floors of orbits sides of nasal cavity floors of nasal cavity alveolar processes maxillary sinuses palatine process 7-23 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Facial Skeleton Palatine (2) posterior roof of mouth floor of nasal cavity lateral walls of nasal cavity 7-24 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Facial Skeleton Zygomatic (2) prominences of cheeks lateral walls of orbits floors of orbits temporal process 7-25 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Facial Skeleton Lacrimal (2) medial walls of orbits groove from orbit to nasal cavity Nasal (2) bridge of nose 7-26 </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Facial Skeleton Vomer (1) inferior portion of nasal septum 7-27 </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Facial Skeleton Inferior Nasal Conchae (2) extend from lateral walls of nasal cavity 7-28 </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Facial Skeleton Mandible (1) lower jaw body ramus mandibular condyle coronoid process alveolar process mandibular foramen mental foramen 7-29 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Vertebral Column cervical vertebrae C 1 c 7 thoracic vertebrae T 1 -T 12 lumbar vertebrae L 1 -L 5 sacrum S 1 -S 5 coccyx 5-fused 7-31 </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Vertebral Column cervical curvature thoracic curvature lumbar curvature pelvic curvature rib facets vertebra prominens intervertebral discs intervertebral foramina 7-32 </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Cervical Vertebrae Atlas 1 st ; supports head Axis 2 nd ; dens pivots to turn head transverse foramina bifid spinous processes vertebral prominens useful landmark 7-33 </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Thoracic Vertebrae long spinous processes rib facets 7-34 </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Lumbar Vertebrae large bodies thick, short spinous processes 7-35 </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Sacrum five fused vertebrae median sacral crest dorsal sacral foramina posterior wall of pelvic cavity sacral promontory 7-36 </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Coccyx tailbone four fused vertebrae 7-37 </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Thoracic Cage Ribs Sternum Thoracic vertebrae Costal cartilages Supports shoulder girdle Protects viscera Role in breathing 7-38 </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Ribs True ribs (7) False ribs (5) floating (2) 7-39 </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Rib Structure Shaft Head posterior end; articulates with vertebrae Tubercle articulates with vertebrae Costal cartilage hyaline cartilage 7-40 </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Sternum Manubrium Body Xiphoid process 7-41 </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Pectoral Girdle shoulder girdle clavicles scapulae supports upper limbs 7-42 </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Clavicles articulate with manubrium articulate with scapulae (acromion process) 7-43 </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Scapulae spine supraspinous fossa infraspinous fossa acromion process coracoid process glenoid cavity 7-44 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Upper Limb Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges 7-45 </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Humerus head greater tubercle lesser tubercle anatomical neck surgical neck deltoid tuberosity capitulum trochlea coronoid fossa olecranon fossa 7-46 </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Radius lateral forearm bone head radial tuberosity styloid process 7-47 </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Ulna medial forearm bone trochlear notch olecranon process coronoid process styloid process 7-48 </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Wrist and Hand Carpals (16) trapezium trapezoid capitate scaphoid pisiform triquetrum hamate lunate Metacarpals (10) Phalanges (28) proximal phalanx middle phalanx distal phalanx 7-49 </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Pelvic Girdle Coxae (2) supports trunk of body protects viscera 7-50 </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Coxae hip bones ilium iliac crest iliac spines greater sciatic notch ischium ischial spines lesser sciatic notch ischial tuberosity pubis obturator foramen acetabulum 7-51 </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Greater and Lesser Pelvis Greater Pelvis lumbar vertebrae posteriorly iliac bones laterally abdominal wall anteriorly Lesser Pelvis sacrum and coccyx posteriorly lower ilium, ischium, and pubis bones laterally and anteriorly 7-52 </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Male and Female Pelvis Female iliac bones more flared broader hips pubic arch angle greater more distance between ischial spine and ischial tuberosity sacral curvature shorter and flatter lighter bones 7-53 </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Lower Limb Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges 7-54 </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Femur longest bone of body head fovea capitis neck greater trochanter lesser trochanter linea aspera condyles epicondyles 7-55 </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Patella kneecap anterior surface of knee flat sesmoid bone located in a tendon 7-56 </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Tibia shin bone medial to fibula condyles tibial tuberosity anterior crest medial malleolus 7-57 </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Fibula Insert figure 7.54 lateral to tibia long, slender head lateral malleolus does not bear any body weight 7-58 </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Ankle and Foot Tarsals (14) calcaneus talus navicular cuboid lateral cuneiform intermediate cuneiform medial cuneiform Metatarsals (10) Phalanges (28) proximal middle distal 7-59 </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Ankle and Foot 7-60 </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Clinical Application Types of Fractures green stick fissured comminuted transverse oblique spiral 7-62 </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Bone-Fractures Classification-type-location-direction of the fracture Open/compound- broken through the skin Complication-infection-osteomyelitis-delayed union Closed-not open to the outside of the skin Degree of the fracture-partial or complete break- eg. Greenstick, seen in children, until age 10. Comminuted has more than two pieces and compression fracture, involves two bones compressed together. Impacted-fragments are wedged together-often breaks of the humerus </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Bone Fractures Pattern-The direction of the injury produces a pattern of fracture. Transverse- angular forces Spiral- results from a twisting motion Location- Long bones, neck or head, proximal/distal Grouped according to their etiology sudden trauma- most common stress trauma- wear and tear on a bone pathologic fractures- weakened by disease </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Bone Healing Hematoma- Clot forms during the first 48/72 hrs after a fracture Cellular proliferation- Involves all three layers- Granulation tissue replace the clot New capillary buds and fibroblast Fibrocartilaginous callus forms distal to fracture- forming a bridge between the fragments </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Bone healing Callus formation- cartilage forms at the site 3/4 weeks mineral salts are deposited Ossification Mature bone cells replace the callus, osteoclast resorb the callus-cast removed at this point Remodeling- resorbition of excess callus fracture site becomes thicker and stronger in relation to function </li> </ul>