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Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 1
Presented by: Kamelia Gulam
Foundations of Individual Behavior
Personality @ Values
4- What is Personality?
The sum total of ways in which an individual
reacts to and interacts with others, the
measurable traits a person exhibits
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Personality is Measured By:
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Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s
The more consistent the characteristic and the more
frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more
important the trait.
Two dominant frameworks used to describe
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®)
Big Five Model
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1- The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Most widely used instrument in the world.
Participants are classified on four axes to determine one of
16 possible personality types, such as ENTJ.
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2- The Big Five Model of Personality
Dimensions Extroversion Sociable, gregarious, and assertive
Agreeableness Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.
Conscientiousness Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.
Openness to Experience Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive
Emotional Stability Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative).
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How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior?
Research has shown this to be a better framework.
Certain traits have been shown to strongly relate to
higher job performance:
Highly conscientious people develop more job
knowledge, exert greater effort, and have better
Other Big Five Traits also have implications for
Emotional stability is related to job
Extroverts tend to be happier in their jobs and
have good social skills.
Open people are more creative and can be
Agreeable people are good in social settings. Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 7
Major Personality Attributes
Type A vs. Type B personality
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1- Core Self-Evaluation
Core Self-Evaluation :
The degree to which people like or dislike themselves
Positive self-evaluation leads to higher job performance
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An arrogant .
self-important person who needs excessive admiration.
Less effective in their jobا
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3- Machiavellianism (Mach)
A pragmatic, emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the means.
High Machs are manipulative, win more often, and persuade more than they are persuaded.
Have direct interaction with others.
Work with minimal rules and regulations.
Emotions distract for others.
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The ability to adjust
behavior to meet external,
High monitors conform
more and are more likely
to become leaders.
Show less commitment
to their organizations.
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High Risk-taking Managers
Make quicker decisions
Use less information to make decisions
Operate in smaller and more
Low Risk-taking Managers
Are slower to make decisions
Require more information before making
Exist in larger organizations with stable
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6- Personality Types Type A’s
1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;
2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;
3. strive to think or do two or more things at once;
4. cannot cope with leisure time;
5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in
terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.
1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its
2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or
3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their
superiority at any cost;
4. can relax without guilt. Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 14
7- Proactive Personality
Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs.
Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.
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Personality and National Culture
A country’s culture influences the
dominant personality characteristics of
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Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to
live your life that is personally or socially preferable –
“How To” live life properly.
Represent a prioritizing of individual values.
Identified by the relative importance an individual
assigns to such values as freedom, pleasure, self-
respect, honesty, obedience, and equality
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Importance of Values
Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and
Influence our perception of the world around us
Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong”
Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred
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Types of Values – Rokeach Value
They are the goals that we would like to achieve
during our lifetime.
Consist primarily of personal characteristics and
personality traits such as honest, polite, and
People in same occupations or categories tend to hold
But values vary between groups
Value differences make it difficult for groups to negotiate and
may create conflict
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Examples of Terminal Values
A comfortable life (a prosperous life)
An exciting life (stimulating, active life)
A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution)
A world of peace (free of war and conflict)
A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts)
Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all)
Family security (taking care of loved ones)
Freedom (independence, free choice)
Happiness (contentedness) 5-20Organizational Behavior (HUR 212)
Examples of Terminal Values
Ambitious (hard working, aspiring)
Capable (competent, efficient)
Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful)
Clean (neat, tidy)
Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)
Forgiving (willing to pardon others)
Helpful (working for the welfare of others)
Honest (sincere, truthful)
5-21Organizational Behavior (HUR 212)
Managers consistently report that the action of their bosses is the most important factor influencing ethical and unethical behavior in their organizations.
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Values across Cultures