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  • Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 1

    Presented by: Kamelia Gulam

    Chapter: 5

    Foundations of Individual Behavior

    Personality @ Values

  • 4- What is Personality?

     The sum total of ways in which an individual

    reacts to and interacts with others, the

    measurable traits a person exhibits

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 2



    • Heredity

    • Environment

    • Situation

  • Measuring Personality

    Personality is Measured By:

     Self-report surveys

     Observer-rating surveys

     Projective measures

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 3

  • Personality Traits

    Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s


    The more consistent the characteristic and the more

    frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more

    important the trait.

    Two dominant frameworks used to describe


     Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®)

     Big Five Model

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 4

  • 1- The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

     Most widely used instrument in the world.

     Participants are classified on four axes to determine one of

    16 possible personality types, such as ENTJ.

    Extroverted (E)

    Introverted (I)

    Sensing (S)

    Intuitive (N)

    Thinking (T)

    Feeling (F)

    Judging (J)

    Perceiving (P)

    Flexible and






    Quiet and




    Uses Values

    & Emotions




    Use Reason

    and Logic

    Want Order

    & Structure

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 5

  • 2- The Big Five Model of Personality

    Dimensions Extroversion Sociable, gregarious, and assertive

    Agreeableness Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.

    Conscientiousness Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.

    Openness to Experience Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive

    Emotional Stability Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative).

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 6

  • How Do the Big Five Traits Predict Behavior?

     Research has shown this to be a better framework.

     Certain traits have been shown to strongly relate to

    higher job performance:

     Highly conscientious people develop more job

    knowledge, exert greater effort, and have better


     Other Big Five Traits also have implications for


     Emotional stability is related to job


     Extroverts tend to be happier in their jobs and

    have good social skills.

     Open people are more creative and can be

    good leaders.

     Agreeable people are good in social settings. Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 7

  • Major Personality Attributes

    Influencing OB

     Core Self-evaluation

     Narcissism

     Machiavellianism

     Self-monitoring

     Risk taking

     Type A vs. Type B personality

     Proactive Personality

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 8

  • 1- Core Self-Evaluation

     Core Self-Evaluation :

     The degree to which people like or dislike themselves

     Positive self-evaluation leads to higher job performance

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 9

  • 2-Narcissism

     Narcissism

     An arrogant .

     entitled

     self-important person who needs excessive admiration.

     Less effective in their jobا

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 10

  • 3- Machiavellianism (Mach)

     A pragmatic, emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the means.

     High Machs are manipulative, win more often, and persuade more than they are persuaded.

    Flourish when:

    Have direct interaction with others.

    Work with minimal rules and regulations.

     Emotions distract for others.

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 11

  •  The ability to adjust

    behavior to meet external,

    situational factors.

     High monitors conform

    more and are more likely

    to become leaders.

     Show less commitment

    to their organizations.

    4- Self-Monitoring:

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 12

  • 5- Risk-Taking

     High Risk-taking Managers

     Make quicker decisions

     Use less information to make decisions

     Operate in smaller and more

    entrepreneurial organizations

     Low Risk-taking Managers

     Are slower to make decisions

     Require more information before making


     Exist in larger organizations with stable


    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 13

  • 6- Personality Types Type A’s

    1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;

    2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;

    3. strive to think or do two or more things at once;

    4. cannot cope with leisure time;

    5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in

    terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.

    Type B’s

    1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its

    accompanying impatience;

    2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or


    3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their

    superiority at any cost;

    4. can relax without guilt. Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 14

  • 7- Proactive Personality

    Proactive Personality

    Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs.

    Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 15

  • Personality and National Culture

    A country’s culture influences the

    dominant personality characteristics of

    its population.

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 16

  • 5- Values

    Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to

    live your life that is personally or socially preferable –

    “How To” live life properly.

    Value System

     Represent a prioritizing of individual values.

     Identified by the relative importance an individual

    assigns to such values as freedom, pleasure, self-

    respect, honesty, obedience, and equality

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 17

  • Importance of Values

     Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and


     Influence our perception of the world around us

     Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong”

     Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred

    over others

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 18

  • Types of Values – Rokeach Value


     Terminal Values

     They are the goals that we would like to achieve

    during our lifetime.

     Instrumental Values

     Consist primarily of personal characteristics and

    personality traits such as honest, polite, and


     People in same occupations or categories tend to hold

    similar values

     But values vary between groups

     Value differences make it difficult for groups to negotiate and

    may create conflict

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 19

  • Examples of Terminal Values

     A comfortable life (a prosperous life)

     An exciting life (stimulating, active life)

     A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution)

     A world of peace (free of war and conflict)

     A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts)

     Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all)

     Family security (taking care of loved ones)

     Freedom (independence, free choice)

     Happiness (contentedness) 5-20Organizational Behavior (HUR 212)

  • Examples of Terminal Values

     Ambitious (hard working, aspiring)

     Broad-minded (open-minded)

     Capable (competent, efficient)

     Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful)

     Clean (neat, tidy)

     Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)

     Forgiving (willing to pardon others)

     Helpful (working for the welfare of others)

     Honest (sincere, truthful)

    5-21Organizational Behavior (HUR 212)

  • Ethical Behavior

    Managers consistently report that the action of their bosses is the most important factor influencing ethical and unethical behavior in their organizations.

    Organizational Behavior (HUR 212) 22

  • Values across Cultures

    Hofstede’s Framework

     Power distance

     Individualism


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