chapter 5. air pollution

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  • Pollutants: Sources, Effects, andDispersion Modeling

    5.1SOURCES, EFFECTS, AND FATE OFPOLLUTANTS Sources of Air Pollution

    Point, Area, and Line Sources Gaseous and Particulate Emissions Primary and Secondary Air Pollut-

    ants Emission Factors Emission Inventories Nationwide Air Pollution Trends

    Effects of Air Pollution Economic Losses Visible and Quantifiable Effects Biodiversity Deterioration of Exposed Materials Health Effects Atmospheric Effects Rainfall Quality

    Tropospheric OzoneA Special Prob-lem

    Brief Synopsis of Fate of AirPollutants

    Effects of Wind Speed and Direc-tion

    Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence Effects of Atmospheric Stability Effects of Topography on Air

    Motion Other Factors

    5.2VOCs AND HAPs EMISSION FROM CHEMICALPLANTS Emission Points

    Process Point Sources Process Fugitive Sources Area Fugitive Sources

    Classification of VOCs and HAPs

    5.3HAPs FROM SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALMANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Hazardous Organic NESHAP

    Process Vents Storage Vessels Transfer Operations Wastewater Solid Processing

    Toxic Pollutants

    5.4ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY Basic Chemical Processes

    Catalytic Oxidation of SO2Photochemical Reactions

    Particulates Long-Range Planning

    5.5MACRO AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS Acid Rain Effects

    Effects on Forests Effects on Soil

    5Air PollutionElmar R. Altwicker | Larry W. Canter | Samuel S. Cha | Karl T.Chuang | David H.F. Liu | Gurumurthy Ramachandran | Roger K.Raufer | Parker C. Reist | Alan R. Sanger | Amos Turk | Curtis P.Wagner

    1999 CRC Press LLC

  • Effects on Groundwater Effects on Surface Water Effects on Materials Effects on Health

    Losses in Stratospheric Ozone Layer Global Warming

    Ecological Impact Impact on Water Resources Impact on Agriculture Impact on Air Quality Impact on Human Health

    5.6METEOROLOGY Wind

    Scales of Air Motion Wind Rose Turbulence

    Lapse Rates and Stability Lapse Rates Stability Inversions

    Precipitation Topography

    Land-Sea Breeze Mountain-Valley Winds Urban-Heat-Island Effect

    5.7METEOROLOGIC APPLICATIONS IN AIRPOLLUTION CONTROL Air Pollution Surveys Selection of Plant Site Allowable Emission Rates Stack Design

    5.8ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELING The Gaussian Model

    Plume Characteristics Dispersion Coefficients Stability Classes Wind Speed

    Plume Rise and Stack Height Considera-tions

    Plume Rise Briggs Plume Rise Downwash Tall Stacks

    Computer Programs for Dispersion Model-ing

    Guideline Models Model Options Screening and Refined Models

    Simple and Complex Terrain Urban and Rural Classification Averaging Periods Single and Multiple Sources Type of Release Additional Plume Influences Meteorology Other Models

    Mobile and Line Source Modeling CALINE3 Model CAL3QHC Model BLP Model

    Air Quality

    5.9EMISSION MEASUREMENTS Planning an Emissions Testing Pro-

    gram Analyzing Air Emissions

    Stack Sampling Air Toxics in Ambient Air Equipment Emissions

    Monitoring Area Emissions Direct Measurements Indirect Methods

    5.10AIR QUALITY MONITORING Sampling of Ambient Air

    Sampling Method Selection General Air Sampling Problems

    Gas and Vapor Sampling Collection in Containers or Bags Absorption Adsorption Freeze-Out Sampling

    Particulate Matter Sampling Filtration Impingement and Impaction Electrostatic Precipitation Thermal Precipitators

    Air Quality Monitoring Systems Purpose of Monitoring Monitoring in Urban Areas Sampling Site Selection Static Methods of Air Monitoring

    Manual Analyses Instrumental Analyses

    Sensors Data Transmission

    1999 CRC Press LLC

  • 1999 CRC Press LLC

    Data Processing Portable and Automatic Analyzers

    5.11STACK SAMPLING Pitot Tube Assembly

    Installation Operation

    Two-Module Sampling Unit Heated Compartment Ice-Bath Compartment

    Operating or Control Unit Sampling for Gases and Vapors

    5.12CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Requirements System Options

    In Situ Systems Extractive Systems System Selection

    Continuous Emission Monitors Location of Systems Maintenance of Systems

    5.13REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES Open-Path Optical Remote Sensing

    Systems Instrumentation

    Bistatic Systems Unistatic Systems Limitations

    Pollutants: Minimization andControl

    5.14POLLUTION REDUCTION Raw Material Substitution Process Modification Marketing Pollution Rights Demand Modification Gas Cleaning Equipment

    5.15PARTICULATE CONTROLS Control Equipment Particulate Size Other Factors

    5.16PARTICULATE CONTROLS: DRYCOLLECTORS 336Gravity Settling Chambers

    Cyclones Gas Flow Patterns Tangential Gas Velocity Radial and Axial Gas Velocity Modeling Gas Flows Collection Efficiency Pressure Drop Dust Loading Cyclone Design Optimization

    Filters Fiber Filters Fabric Filters (Baghouses)

    5.17PARTICULATE CONTROLS: ELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATORS Corona Generation Current-Voltage Relationships Particle Charging

    Field Charging Diffusion Charging

    Migration Velocity ESP Efficiency

    Dust Resistivity Precipitator Design

    5.18PARTICULATE CONTROLS: WETCOLLECTORS General Description Scrubber Types

    Spray CollectorsType I Impingement on a Wetted SurfaceType

    II Bubbling through Scrubbing Liquid

    Type III Scrubbers Using a Combination of

    Designs Factors Influencing Collection

    Efficiency Contacting Power Rule Use of the Aerodynamic Cut Diam-

    eter Determination of dac as a Function of

    Scrubber Operating Parameters

    5.19GASEOUS EMISSION CONTROL Energy Source Substitution Process Modifications

    Combustion Control Other Modifications

    Design Feature Modifications Modified Burners Burner Locations and Spacing

  • Tangential Firing Steam Temperature Control Air and Fuel Flow Patterns Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Com-

    bustion Pollution Monitoring

    5.20GASEOUS EMISSION CONTROL: PHYSICAL ANDCHEMICAL SEPARATION Absorption

    Absorption Operations Commercial Applications

    Condensation Adsorption

    Adsorption Isotherm Adsorption Equipment Adsorber Design

    Chemical Conversion VOCs Hydrogen Sulfide Nitrogen Oxides

    5.21GASEOUS EMISSION CONTROL: THERMALDESTRUCTION Overview of Thermal Destruction

    Thermal Combustion and Incinera-tion

    Flaring Emerging Technologies

    Source Examples Petroleum Industry Chemical Wood Pulping Landfill Gas Emissions Rendering Plants

    Combustion Chemistry Stoichiometry Kinetics

    Design Considerations Thermal Incinerators Flares Emerging Technologies

    Conclusions

    5.22GASEOUS EMISSION CONTROL: BIOFILTRATION Mechanisms Fixed-Film Biotreatment Systems Applicability and Limitations

    Fugitive Emissions: Sources andControls

    5.23FUGITIVE INDUSTRIAL PARTICULATEEMISSIONS Sources Emission Control Options

    Process Modification Preventive Measures Capture and Removal

    5.24FUGITIVE INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALEMISSIONS Sources Source Controls

    Valves Pumps Compressors Pressure-Relief Devices Sampling Connection Systems Open-Ended Lines Flanges and Connectors Agitators

    5.25FUGITIVE DUST Sources Prevention and Controls

    Wind Control Wet Suppression Vegetative Cover Chemical Stabilization

    Odor Control

    5.26PERCEPTION, EFFECT, ANDCHARACTERIZATION Odor Terminology

    Threshold Intensity Character Hedonic Tone

    Human Response to Odors and OdorPerception

    Sensitization, Desensitization, andTolerance of Odors

    Odor Mixtures Other Factors Affecting Odor Percep-

    tion Odor and Health Effects

    1999 CRC Press LLC

  • 1999 CRC Press LLC

    5.27ODOR CONTROL STRATEGY Activated Carbon Adsorption Adsorption with Chemical Reaction Biofiltration Wet Scrubbing Combustion Dispersion

    Indoor Air Pollution

    5.28RADON AND OTHER POLLUTANTS Radon

    Source and Effects Radon Detection Radon Control Techniques

    Other Indoor Pollutants Source and Effects Control Techniques

    5.29AIR QUALITY IN THE WORKPLACE Exposure Limits Occupational Exposure Monitoring

    Color Change Badges Color Detector (Dosimeter) Tubes Other Monitoring Techniques

    MSDSs

  • Air pollution is defined as the presence in the outdoor at-mosphere of one or more contaminants (pollutants) inquantities and duration that can injure human, plant, oranimal life or property (materials) or which unreasonablyinterferes with the enjoyment of life or the conduct of busi-ness. Examples of traditional contaminants include sulfurdioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons,volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen sulfide,particulate matter, smoke, and haze. This list of air pol-lutants can be subdivided into pollutants that are gases orparticulates. Gases, such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen ox-ides exhibit diffusion properties and are normally formlessfluids that change to the liquid or solid state only by acombined effect of increased pressure and decreased tem-perature. Particulates represent any dispersed matter, solidor liquid, in which the individual aggregates are larger thansingle small molecules (about 0.0002 mm in diameter) butsmaller than about 500 micrometers (mm). Of recent at-tention is particulate matter equal to or less than 10 mmin size, with this size range of concern relative to poten-tial human health effects. (One mm is 1024 cm).

    Currently the focus is on air toxics (or hazardous airpollutants [HAPs]). Air toxics refer to compounds that arepresent in the atmosphere and exhibit potentially toxic ef-fects not only to humans but also to the overall ecosys-tem. In the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs),the air toxics category includes 189 specific chemicals.These chemicals represe

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