chapter 4 valuation of bonds

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Chapter 4 Valuation of Bonds 2005, Pearson Prentice Hal

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Chapter 4 Valuation of Bonds.  2005, Pearson Prentice Hall. Security Valuation. In general, the intrinsic value of an asset = the present value of the stream of expected cash flows discounted at an appropriate required rate of return. Preferred Stock. A hybrid security : - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Page 1: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Chapter 4 Valuation of Bonds

2005, Pearson Prentice Hall

Page 2: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Security Valuation

• In general, the intrinsic value of an asset = the present value of the stream of expected cash flows discounted at an appropriate required rate of return.

Page 3: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Preferred Stock

A hybrid security:• It’s like common stock - no fixed

maturity.– Technically, it’s part of equity

capital.

• It’s like debt - preferred dividends are fixed.– Missing a preferred dividend does

not constitute default, but preferred dividends are cumulative.

Page 4: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

•Usually sold for $25, $50, or $100 per share.

•Dividends are fixed either as a dollar amount or as a percentage of par value.

•Example: In 1988, Xerox issued $75 million of 8.25% preferred stock at $50 per share.–$4.125 is the fixed, annual dividend

per share.

Preferred Stock

Page 5: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

•Firms may have multiple classes of preferreds, each with different features.

•Priority: lower than debt, higher than common stock.

•Cumulative feature: all past unpaid preferred stock dividends must be paid before any common stock dividends are declared.

Preferred Stock Features

Page 6: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

•Protective provisions are common.•Convertibility: many preferreds are

convertible into common shares.•Adjustable rate preferreds have

dividends tied to interest rates.•Participation: some (very few)

preferreds have dividends tied to the firm’s earnings.

Preferred Stock Features

Page 7: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

•PIK Preferred: Pay-in-kind preferred stocks pay additional preferred shares to investors rather than cash dividends.

•Retirement: Most preferreds are callable, and many include a sinking fund provision to set cash aside for the purpose of retiring preferred shares.

Preferred Stock Features

Page 8: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Preferred Stock Valuation

•A preferred stock can usually be valued like a perpetuity:

V =Dk

psps

Page 9: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Example:

•Xerox preferred pays an 8.25% dividend on a $50 par value.

•Suppose our required rate of return on Xerox preferred is 9.5%.

VVpsps ==4.1254.125

.095.095== $43.42$43.42

Page 10: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Expected Rate of Return on Preferred

• Just adjust the valuation model:

D

Po

kps =

Page 11: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Example

• If we know the preferred stock price is $40, and the preferred dividend is $4.125, the expected return is:

D

Po

kps = = = .10314.125

40

Page 12: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

The Financial Pages:Preferred Stocks

52 weeks Yld VolHi Lo Sym Div % PE 100s

Close2788 2506 GenMotor pfG 2.28 8.9 … 86

25 53

• Dividend: $2.28 on $25 par value = 9.12% dividend rate.

• Expected return: 2.28 / 25.53 = 8.9%.

Page 13: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Common Stock

• Is a variable-income security.–Dividends may be increased or

decreased, depending on earnings.

•Represents equity or ownership.• Includes voting rights.•Limited liability: liability is limited

to amount of owners’ investment.•Priority: lower than debt and

preferred.

Page 14: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Common Stock Characteristics

• Claim on Income - a stockholder has a claim on the firm’s residual income.

• Claim on Assets - a stockholder has a residual claim on the firm’s assets in case of liquidation.

• Preemptive Rights - stockholders may share proportionally in any new stock issues.

• Voting Rights - right to vote for the firm’s board of directors.

Page 15: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

• You expect XYZ stock to pay a $5.50 dividend at the end of the year. The stock price is expected to be $120 at that time.

• If you require a 15% rate of return, what would you pay for the stock now?

Common Stock Valuation(Single Holding Period)

0 1

? 5.50 + 120

Page 16: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Common Stock Valuation(Single Holding Period)

Solution:

Vcs = (5.50/1.15) +

(120/1.15)

= 4.783 +

104.348

= $109.13

Page 17: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Common Stock Valuation(Single Holding Period)

Financial Calculator solution:

P/Y =1, I = 15, n=1, FV=

125.50solve: PV = -109.13or:P/Y =1, I = 15, n=1, FV= 120, PMT = 5.50solve: PV = -109.13

Page 18: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

The Financial Pages:Common Stocks

52 weeks Yld Vol Net

Hi Lo Sym Div % PE 100s Hi Lo Close Chg

135 80 IBM .52 .5 21 142349 99 93 9496 -343

82 18 CiscoSys … 47 1189057 21 19 2025 -113

Page 19: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Common Stock Valuation(Multiple Holding Periods)

•Constant Growth Model•Assumes common stock

dividends will grow at a constant rate into the future.

Vcs =D1

kcs - g

Page 20: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Constant Growth Model• Assumes common stock dividends will

grow at a constant rate into the future.

• D1 = the dividend at the end of period 1.

• kcs = the required return on the common stock.

• g = the constant, annual dividend growth rate.

Vcs =D1

kcs - g

Page 21: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Example

• XYZ stock recently paid a $5.00 dividend. The dividend is expected to grow at 10% per year indefinitely. What would we be willing to pay if our required return on XYZ stock is 15%?

D0 = $5, so D1 = 5 (1.10) = $5.50

Page 22: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Example

• XYZ stock recently paid a $5.00 dividend. The dividend is expected to grow at 10% per year indefinitely. What would we be willing to pay if our required return on XYZ stock is 15%?

Vcs = = = $110 D1 5.50

kcs - g .15 - .10

Page 23: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Expected Return on Common Stock

• Just adjust the valuation model

Vcs =D

kcs - g

k = ( ) + gD1

Po

Page 24: Chapter 4  Valuation of Bonds

Example•We know a stock will pay a

$3.00 dividend at time 1, has a price of $27 and an expected growth rate of 5%.

kcs = ( ) + gD1

Po

kcs = ( ) + .05 = 16.11%3.00

27