chapter 4 land, water and air resources section 3 water pollution and solutions notes 4-3

Download Chapter 4 Land, Water and Air Resources Section 3 Water Pollution and Solutions Notes 4-3

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  • Chapter 4Land, Water and Air ResourcesSection 3Water Pollution and SolutionsNotes 4-3

  • Limited SupplyMost water on Earth is salty97%Only 3% of all water is usable (fresh)2/3 of all fresh water is in the form of iceGroundwater is another form of fresh waterWater stored in layers of soil and rock under the surface of the earth

  • Renewing SupplyFresh water is renewableWater cycle continuously renews fresh waterWhen water evaporates, it leaves the pollution behindWater is fresh once it is in the form of water vaporHowever, water can re-pollute itself if it falls through pollutionForms acid rain

  • Water ShortagesOccur when people use water fast than it can be renewedHappens often in a droughtCan also make fresh water, for places that do not have enough rain fall to produce the water that they need, by taking salt out of sea water

  • Water PollutionAny change in water that has a harmful effect on people or other living thingsIron or copper: make drink and bathing unpleasantMercury or benzene: cause sickness or deathMost pollution is caused by human activitiesSewage: water and human waste washed down sinks, toilets and showersCan make people very ill

  • Water PollutionAgricultural Waste: Animals waste and farm chemicalsFertilizers: chemicals that provide nutrients to help crops grow betterPesticides: chemicals that kill crop-destroying organismsThese can build up to harmful concentrations

  • Water PollutionIndustry and Mining:Chemical plants, paper and textile mills, and factories use metal that can pollute.Metal can harm ecosystems: people, animals, plants and environmentSediments:Tiny particles of rock, silt and sandCan be washed into areas where it covers food, nesting sites and eggs of organisms

  • Water PollutionOil and Gasoline:Oil spills kill fish, birds and other life in ocean areasGasoline can leak out of underground tanks and get into groundwater and drinking waterHeat:Power plants sometimes put hot water used to cool devices back into the environment too soonCauses plants and animals to dieCooling towers are now used to keep this from happening

  • Cleaning Up the WaterTo reduce water pollution:Treat wastes so they are less harmfulFind substitutes for pollutants

    Sewage TreatmentPrimary Treatment: removes solid materials from wastewaterWater passes through filtersSolids are held in tanks and particles settle out

  • Cleaning Up the WaterSecondary Treatment: bacteria break down solid wastesWater is treated with chlorine to kill disease causing organismsArcata, CAWastewater flows into ponds with algaeAlgae breaks down sewageWater moves to marshes with cattails and bulrushes to clean the waterAreas are also for habitats for fish and birdsAlso areas for bike riding and trails for recreation

  • Cleaning Up the WaterOil and GasolineOil spills can be cleaned up with bacteriaBacteria eat the oil and reproduce as long as there is foodThey die off as soon as their food disappearsBig oil spills affect the wildlife before the bacteria can restore the ecosystemGasoline spills are hard to clean upSoil can be removedHowever, if gasoline reaches the groundwatermuch worse!Water has to be pumped out and cleanedThen it can be put back into the ground

  • Cleaning Up the WaterIndustrial ChemicalsIndustries can recycle their wastesThey save money and reduce pollutionIndustries can change how they produce their productUse less water or create less harmful wastesFarming ChemicalsFinding alternatives to pesticides and fertilizersDDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane)1972 DDT usage was stoppedToday it is labeled as a probable human carcinogen Stays in an organism for a long time

  • What can you do?Little changes can make a big differenceDont pour harsh chemicals down the drainDont dump them in the grassPaint thinnerMotor oilGarden chemicalsUse environmentally friendly cleaning supplies


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