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  • 1. Chapter 31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity

2. 31.1Nuclear Structure The atomic nucleus consists of positively charged protons and neutral neutrons. 3. 31.1Nuclear Structure atomic number atomic mass number 4. 31.1Nuclear Structure Nuclei that contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons are known asisotopes . 5. 31.1Nuclear Structure 6. 31.2The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus The mutual repulsion of the protons tends to push the nucleus apart.What then, holds the nucleus together? The strong nuclear force. 7. 31.2The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus As nuclei get larger, moreneutrons are required forstability. The neutrons act like glue without adding more repulsive force. 8. 31.3The Mass Deficit of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy 9. 31.3The Mass Deficit of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy Example 3The Binding Energy of the Helium Nucleus Revisited The atomic mass of helium is 4.0026u and the atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.0078u.Using atomic mass units, instead of kilograms, obtain the binding energy of the helium nucleus. 10. 31.3The Mass Deficit of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy 11. 31.3The Mass Deficit of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy 12. 31.4Radioactivity A magnetic field separates three types of particles emitted by radioactive nuclei. 13. 31.4Radioactivity DECAY 14. 31.4Radioactivity A smoke detector 15. 31.4Radioactivity DECAY 16. 31.4Radioactivity DECAY excited energy state lower energy state