chapter 3 biology sixth edition raven/johnson (c) the mcgraw-hill companies, inc....

Download Chapter 3 Biology Sixth Edition Raven/Johnson (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. www.nicholls.edu/biol-qcf

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 3 Biology Sixth Edition Raven/Johnson (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. www.nicholls.edu/biol-qcf
  • Slide 2
  • The Chemistry of Carbon Because carbon only has 4 electrons in its outer shell, it can attach to four separate molecules Organic molecules consisting of only C and H are called hydrocarbons. Organic molecules contain C and H
  • Slide 3
  • Hydrocarbon chains can have functional groups that cause the macromolecule to behave in a certain way. Carboxyl Group: -COOH -COO + H +
  • Slide 4
  • Slide 5
  • Making and Breaking Macromolecules Macromolecules (polymers) are formed from smaller building blocks called monomers. Macromolecules are formed by dehydration synthesis (requires energy) Macromolecule bonds are broken by hydrolysis (releases energy in bonds)
  • Slide 6
  • Energy must be used to build macromolecules. Energy is released when macromolecules are split.
  • Slide 7
  • Four Types of Organic Macromolecules Proteins Nucleic Acids Lipids Carbohydrates
  • Slide 8
  • Protein Types and Function Enzyme Catalyst Facilitate chemical reactions Defense Bodys hormone and immune system Transport Specific small molecules and ions Support Structural roles Motion Aid in muscle movement Regulation Intercellular messengers
  • Slide 9
  • Protein Building Blocks Proteins are made of linked amino acids Only 20 amino acids available Sequence of amino acids are unique for each protein
  • Slide 10
  • C NH 2 COOH HR Structure of Amino Acids (Acidic Group) (R or Functional Group) (Amino Group) (Hydrogen Group)
  • Slide 11
  • Five Groups of Amino Acids Nonpolar Polar Aromatic Ionizable Special Structural Property
  • Slide 12
  • Contains CH 2 or CH 3 Contains O or only H
  • Slide 13
  • Contains carbon ring that has alternating single and double bonds
  • Slide 14
  • Contains acids or bases
  • Slide 15
  • Special function
  • Slide 16
  • Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds: Dehydration synthesis
  • Slide 17
  • Primary Structure - Amino Acid Sequence Secondary Structure - Folding due to hydrogen bond Motifs Characteristic secondary structure ( creates a fold or crease)
  • Slide 18
  • Driven into its tertiary structure by hydrophobic reactions with water, disulfide bonds, and other ionic and covalent bonds -remember: some amino acids are nonpolar. Two or more polypeptide chains associate to form a functional protein Domain structurally independent functional unit subunits
  • Slide 19
  • Protein Structure Viewed at Six Levels Amino acid sequence (primary structure) Coils and sheets (secondary structure) Folds or creases (motifs) Three-dimensional shape (tertiary structure) Functional units (domains) Individual polypeptide subunits associated in quaternary structure
  • Slide 20
  • Chaperonins proteins that help other proteins fold correctly
  • Slide 21
  • Primary structure determines tertiary structure!
  • Slide 22
  • Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Examples include Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA). All nucleotides have: 1.) nitrogenous base 2.) pentose sugar -deoxyribose -ribose 3.) phosphate group
  • Slide 23
  • Fig. 3.14 Fig. 3.15 A chemical difference between DNA and RNA Nucleotides (monomer) connected by phosphodiester bonds to form nucleic acid (polymer).
  • Slide 24
  • Hydrogen bonds between base pairs gives DNA its characteristic double- helix shape.
  • Slide 25
  • Purines always bond with a pyrimidine, and with DNA it is always: A-T; G-C Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine Uracil DNA vs RNA: RNA has Uracil instead of Thymine H instead of CH 3
  • Slide 26
  • DNA double stranded, contains thymine, #2 C attached to H RNA single stranded, contains uracil, #2 C attached to OH
  • Slide 27
  • Nucleotide bases also play an important part in other molecules crucial to life: ATP, NAD, and FAD. Adenosine triphosphate
  • Slide 28
  • Lipids - triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids Lipids serve as long-term energy stores in cells, form membranes, and serve as hormones and insulation. Lipids contain more energy per gram than any other biological molecule. Lipids are nonpolar, thus they do not dissolve in water (hydrophobic). All lipids are insoluble in water!!
  • Slide 29
  • Structure of Triglycerides unsaturated saturated functional group COOH Fatty Acids: long chains of hydrocarbons with an acidic functional group COOH Saturated: no double bonds between carbons, saturated with hydrogen, higher melting point than unsaturated Unsaturated: has one or more double bonds between carbons Dehydration or
  • Slide 30
  • Solids (butter) at room temperature; fatty acids can align close to each other Liquids (corn oil) at room temperature; double bonds prevent fatty acids from aligning close to each other
  • Slide 31
  • Phosphate Phospholipids consist of: Glycerol 2 Fatty acids Phosphate group Polar end Non- Polar end
  • Slide 32
  • Contains a phosphate group Cellular membranes
  • Slide 33
  • Terpenes long chain lipids; components of many biologically important pigments All steroids characteristically have four carbon rings.
  • Slide 34
  • Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain C, H, and O and serve as quick energy and short-term energy storage. Monomers of carbohydrates are the monosaccharides (simple sugars)
  • Slide 35
  • 6-Carbon sugars primary energy storage
  • Slide 36
  • Empirical formula for a 6-C sugar: C 6 H 12 O 6 Glucose is metabolized by cellular respiration
  • Slide 37
  • Dehydration synthesis consumes energy Hydrolysis splits the disaccharides and releases energy double sugars important in sugar transport
  • Slide 38
  • Your taste buds can taste the difference! Same empirical formula (C 6 H 12 0 6 ) different arrangement.
  • Slide 39
  • Energy storage for plants Energy storage for animals
  • Slide 40
  • Structural polysaccharide chief component of plant cell walls Modified form of cellulose with a nitrogen group added to the glucose units. Structural building material in insects, many fungi, and certain other organisms.
  • Slide 41
  • Slide 42
  • The End.