chapter 25: preventing and managing injuries in young athletes

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Chapter 25: Preventing and Managing Injuries in Young Athletes. Cultural Trends. Significant increase in participation by young children, particularly females Organized and informal sports and recreation activities Results in an increase in sports and recreation related injuries - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 24: Preventing and Managing Injuries in Young AthletesChapter 25: Preventing and Managing Injuries in Young Athletes
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Cultural Trends
Organized and informal sports and recreation activities
Results in an increase in sports and recreation related injuries
Risk of injuries is inherent in sports
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Questions still arise concerning the appropriateness of youth participation in sports
Level of training intensity and frequency remains a concern
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Where are injuries occurring? The Facts
More than 3.5 million children ages 14 and under suffer medically treated sports injuries annually
Collision/contact sports are associated with higher injury rates
Nearly half of all traumatic brain/head injuries to children occur during sports or recreational activity
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© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
The most common injuries include sprains, muscle strains, bone & growth plate injuries, heat illnesses and repetitive motion injuries
Children are at higher risk of winter sports injuries (skiing, snowboarding, sledding)
Children that do not wear protective equipment are at greater risk of sustaining sports-related injuries.
Most organized sports-related injuries (62%) occur during practice rather than games
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Proven Interventions
Children should have access and consistently use appropriate gear for respective sports
Children enrolled in organized sports that are properly maintained assist in injury prevention
Coaches should be trained in CPR & First Aid should also have plans in place to respond appropriately to emergency situations
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Physical Maturity Assessment in Matching Athletes
Children are at a greater risk than adults for injury
Due to inability to assess risk, less coordination, slower reaction time and less accuracy
Rates of injury vary with age and gender
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Maturity assessment should be part of the physical examination
Used to protect the physically young athlete
Commonly used tools
Stage 1 – puberty is not evident
Stage 3 – fastest bone growth and is crucial in terms of contact/collision sports (growth plate weakness)
Stage 5 – full development
© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics
Preadolescent boys and girls should not be separated by gender in recreational or competitive sports activities
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Physical Conditioning and Training
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Young athletes should focus on developing muscular strength, endurance, cardiovascular fitness and flexibility
Should work with fitness professionals, coaches and ATC’s (if possible) year-round to maintain fitness and nutrition
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© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Athletes should engage in appropriate warm-up (w/ stretching) and cool down with activities
Practices should be limited to no more than 2 hours
Strength training can be safe and appropriate for emotionally mature athletes that are able to follow directions associated with a properly designed program
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Psychological and Learning Concerns
Stress as a result of over zealous coaches and parents is always a concern
Children do not always understand sports concepts until they have received instruction
Children usually are eager to please adults
Vulnerable to coercion and manipulation
Coach should be positive and use positive reinforcement
Allows athlete to develop self-worth and self-esteem
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Some children respond to competition while others shy away
Attempting to do ones best must be emphasized
Children must receive instruction
Types of play
Organized vs. Free-flowing
Adverse effect of adult influences is one potential negative psychological aspect of youth sport participation
Participation in sports can be taken to extremes – intensive participation relative to intensity and frequency
Demands placed on body and mind
At ages 10-12 a great deal of development is still occurring cognitively
Ability to comprehend multiple points of view, team perspective
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© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Issues may also enter the picture when injury rehabilitation is involved
Risk factors for psychological complications in the injured child
Stress in the family
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Coaching Qualifications
Training
Degree programs, National Body of Sports certification programs, youth sports coaching programs
No real standards until 1996
NASPE developed National Standards for Athletic Coaches
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NASPE National Standards (continued)
Not a certification program or single national assessment
Helps other organizations provide coaches with education, evaluation and aid in program design to meet needs of prospective & practicing coaches
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© 2010 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Generally coaches have little or no background in providing safe and positive sports experience
Should be dedicated to the highest ideals of coaching
NYSCA has membership and levels of certification focusing on coaching, safety and first aid along with the psychological aspect of sports
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Other Coaching Certification Programs
Program for Athletic Coaches Education (PACE)
Also available through individual National Sport Governing Bodies (NGB’s)
For example, the United States Soccer Federation (USSF)
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Common Injuries in the Young Athlete
Must be concerned with repeated microtrauma that can become compounded, become chronic or even degenerative in maturing musculoskeletal system
Children are susceptible to same injuries as mature adults
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Growth Plate Fractures
Growth plate
Region at the end of long bones where bone growth occurs
Determines length and shape of bone
Trauma could be single acute incident or chronic, overuse, stress related
Suspected fracture should be referred to a physician immediately
Determine severity and form of treatment/immobilization
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Must be carefully monitored
Bone will either not get longer or end up with stimulated growth with injured leg becoming longer than uninjured
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Apophysitis
Apophysis
Often point of large tendon insertion
Repetitive stress results in inflammatory response
Osgood-Schlatter’s and Sever’s disease
Usually begins at ages 8-15
Pain generally with activity
Tenderness is localized with no other significant abnormalities
Diagnosis from history, physical exam and occasionally X-rays
Not serious and will resolve over time
Treatment is directed toward reducing symptoms
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Avulsion Fractures
May result in imbalance and possible injury
Stresses placed on bones through tendon of contracting muscle may result in pieces of bone being pulled away from point of insertion
Common sites
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Spondylolysis
Generally the result of repetitive loading
Occur between ages of 5-10 around the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae
Children often remain asymptomatic and injury is not realized until later in skeletal development
X-rays are required to determine extent of injury
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Spondylolisthesis involves vertebrae slippage
Treatment for both centers on healing of defect and treating patient’s symptoms
Physician’s decision
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Sports Injury Prevention
For all individuals involved in sports one of the primary goals should be prevention of injury
Involve proper physical and psychological conditioning
Utilize appropriate equipment (safety) in a safe environment with adequate supervision
Enforce safety rules
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Instruct participants on fitness and the various components
Performance enhancement and injury reduction
Encourage proper eating and nutrition
Work with athletes on acclimatization and hydration
Be sure plans and guidelines are in place regarding care and treatment of injuries
Work to create a safe and healthy playing environment
Be aware of injury prevention guidelines for specific sports
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