Chapter 24 The Vietnam War CHAPTER 24 THE VIETNAM WAR

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<ul><li><p>Chapter 24The Vietnam WarCHAPTER 24 THE VIETNAM WAR</p></li><li><p>Section 1Setting the Scene</p></li><li><p>Vietnam under foreign ruleFor much of Vietnam's history it has been under foreign rule.China controlled Vietnam for much of its existence prior to 1860.In 1860, France began its domination of the area.During WWII, the Japanese government took control of Vietnam and set up a puppet regime. The Japanese were eventually forced out by the Vietnamese at the end of that war in 1945. France tried to regain control. </p></li><li><p>U.S. Policy in VietnamContainment keep communism from spreadingDomino theory if one country falls to communism in southeast Asia, then they will all fallU.S. Pledges $15M to Aid French In 1950, the United States sent $15 million dollars in military aid to the French for the war in Indochina. Included in the aid package was a military mission and military advisors. At the same time, China and the Soviet Union offered arms to the Vietminh.</p></li><li><p>Ho Chi MinhLeader of the Vietminh who fought for Vietnamese independenceFavored Communist ideas, like in China</p></li><li><p>French defeated in Vietnam After WWII and until 1955, France fought hard to regain their former territories in the region, but with a poorly organized army and little determination among the troops, their efforts soon collapsed. The French were finally defeated at Dien Bien Phu on the 8th of May 1954 by the communist general Vo Nguyen Giap. </p></li><li><p>Geneva AccordsVietnam was divided at the 17th parallelNorth Vietnam would be ruled by Ho Chi Minh, communistNgo Dinh Diem, president of the anti-communist, South VietnamElections were supposed to be held in 1956 that would unify VietnamSouth Vietnam opposed this part because they said the Communists would never hold fair elections</p></li><li><p>By 1960, Eisenhower had sent about 675 military advisors to South Vietnam. (containment)Eisenhower greets Ngo Dinh Diem in Washington in 1957</p></li><li><p>Kennedy became President in 1960. He increase military advisors to South Vietnam to 16,000 by 1963.Kennedy wanted to make a stand in Vietnam on containment.</p></li><li><p>Ngo Dinh Diems downfallFor the most part, Diem was hated by his fellow countrymen. He was Catholic in a country that was about 70 percent Buddhist. Diem was incompetent and corrupt. He passed laws that persecuted the Buddhists in Vietnam.</p></li><li><p>Buddhist monks protestThe monk has set himself on fire performing a ritual suicide in protest against governmental anti-Buddhist policies. Crowds gathered to protest government policies regarding the Buddhists. Government troops opened fire to disperse them, killing nine people.Diems government never admitted responsibility. The Buddhists organized demonstrations that led to seven monks burning themselves to death. </p></li><li><p>Ngo Dinh Diems DeathThe United States no longer will support Diem and makes it known that we would not object to his overthrow.In November 1963, President Diem was overthrown and executed. The following year, the North Vietnamese began a massive drive to conquer the whole country, aided by China and Russia. </p></li><li><p>Robert McNamaraSecretary of Defense under JFK and LBJ1963, was unsure that U.S. should remain in Vietnam; advised JFK to withdrawn; JFK died that yearLater, under LBJ, advised increase in U.S. military involvement in Vietnam</p></li><li><p>Viet CongCommunist guerillas in South VietnamGained power because of the weak government created after Diems deathAided by Ho Chi Minhs forces</p></li><li><p>National Liberation Front Communist political party in South VietnamEarned support of many South Vietnamese people</p></li><li><p>Gulf of Tonkin Resolution1964 North Vietnamese boats torpedoed U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of TonkinIn reality, the attacks did not occur.Gave the president complete control over the war in Vietnam; unlimited war powerspower to take all necessary measure to repel any armed attack against the forces of the U.S. and to prevent further aggression.</p></li><li><p>Section 2Fighting the War</p></li><li><p>Tactics of the Enemy (Vietminh and Vietcong)used guerilla warfarefamiliar with swamps and junglesprotected across border in Cambodia and Laossupported by local populationSouth Vietnamese saw Americans with indifference; did not really support causeused tunnels, land mines, booby traps</p></li><li><p>Vietcong tunnels</p></li><li><p>American war battle conditionsHard to maintain morale with little support Difficult to know who enemy was; farmer by day, Vietcong by nightused saturation bombing - drop thousands of tons of bombs on large areaFragmentation bombing sharp pieces of metal imbedded in bomb so that when it explodes it will create extensive damageAgent Orange herbicide used to destroy jungle vegetationNapalm chemical in bombs that were dropped from airplanes; jelly-like substance that stuck to everything that it touched and burned</p></li><li><p>napalm</p></li><li><p>Agent orange</p></li><li><p>Escalation expansion of warBy the end of 1965, 184,000 American soldiers were stationed in Vietnam</p></li><li><p>Ho Chi Minh Trail- supply line that ran through Laos and Cambodia; used by North Vietnam to supply the Vietcong</p></li><li><p>The Ho Chi Minh Trail will eventually expand into a 1500 mile-long network of jungle and mountain passes extending from North Vietnam's coast along Vietnam's western border through Laos, parts of Cambodia, funneling a constant stream of soldiers and supplies into the highlands of South Vietnam. In 1959, it takes six months to make the journey, by 1968 it will take only six weeks due to road improvements by North Vietnamese laborers, many of whom are women. In the 1970s a parallel fuel pipeline will be added.</p></li><li><p>The Ho Chi Minh Trail</p></li><li><p>Controversy over the war growsHawks senators who supported the warDoves senators who opposed the war</p></li><li><p>Tet Offensive -1968Major coordinated offensive by North Vietnamese and Vietcong during Tet, Vietnamese New YearAttacks launch in many major cities and military bases throughout South VietnamCommunists rounded up American supporters and executed themShowed Americas lack of control over Vietnam</p></li><li><p>My Lai MassacreAmerican soldiers received word that village was sheltering 250 Viet Cong membersWhen infantry company arrived found only women, children, and old menMarch 1968, Lt. William Calley gave order to round up villagers and kill themAmerican helicopter crew arrived on scene and stopped massacre of even more people 1971, Lt. Calley was convicted and sentenced to life in prisonSentence was later reduced to 20 yrs</p></li><li><p>My Lai Massacre </p></li><li><p>The 504 People Killed in the My Lai MassacreThe names of the deceased are followed by their age and sex. A brief tally shows that 50 of the people were three years old or younger, 69 were between the ages of four and seven, 91 were between eight and twelve, and 27 were in their seventies or eighties. The list was provided by the Embassy of Vietnam in Washington, D.C., in response to a request by Trent Angers, author of The Forgotten Hero of My Lai: The Hugh Thompson Story. </p></li><li><p>In 1998, the United States honored the members of the helicopter crew that stopped the attack: Lawrence Colburn, Hugh Thompson, and Glenn AndreottaCrewman Glenn Andreotta, who died in a helicopter crash three weeks after My Lai, was also honored. </p></li><li><p>LBJ looses crediblityIn late January of 1968 the Tet Offensive destroyed any remaining credibility LBJ had with liberal Democrats and lost him the support of the American people generally. Johnson had been insisting for months that victory in Vietnam was nearly at hand; the penetration of 67,000 North Vietnamese and Vietcong deep into South Vietnam that winter suddenly made an American victory seem very distant, if not impossible. </p></li><li><p>Section 3Political Divisions</p></li><li><p>Generation gapGap in values between youth and their parents over issues like music, sex, drug use, and the Vietnam War.</p></li><li><p>Students for a Democratic SocietySDSMiddle class young people who called for social changeLed to the development of the New Left - a new political movement that called for radical changes in racism and poverty</p></li><li><p>Berkeley 1964Students took over the USC at Berkeleys administration building to protest the limiting of their free speech, particularly over the Vietnam War.Police came in and broke up demonstration</p></li><li><p>Teach-in MovementFirst teach in at University of Michigan in 1965Group of faculty members made public statements against Vietnam War.Led to other teach ins around the country</p></li><li><p>Conscientious objectorOpposed war on religious or moral grounds</p></li><li><p>defermentOfficial postponement of military service, usually for college studentsWas protested by many Americans who could not afford college</p></li><li><p>Vietnam War protests grow</p></li><li><p>Johnson does not run for re-election in 1968Lost confidence of American peopleLacked credibilityTet offensiveMcCarthys strong showing as anti-war candidate</p></li><li><p>Election of 1968Hubert Humphrey, LBJs VP runs as Democrat, but is hurt because he supported LBJs Vietnam policiesRobert Kennedy ran as Democrat, but was assassinated in June, 1968Nixon ran as Republican and won.</p></li><li><p>Section 4The End of the War</p></li><li><p>Nixons Vietnam PolicyVietnamization- replacing American troops with South Vietnamese troops and gradually pulling American troops out of VietnamEven though he was pulling America out of Vietnam, he still ordered secret bombing raids, particularly in CambodiaNixon appealed to the silent majority, who he said supported his policies in Vietnam, but were not protestors like the hippies</p></li><li><p>Kent State and Jackson StateProtests erupted over Nixons bombing of CambodiaProtests became violent as National Guard and police fired on crowds4 dead at Kent State and 2 dead at Jackson State</p></li><li><p>An End to U.S. involvement in Vietnam (Paris Peace Talks)January 1973U.S. withdrawn from South Vietnam within 60 daysAll prisoners of war releasedEnd military involvement in Laos and Cambodia17th parallel would continue to divide Vietnam</p></li><li><p>South Vietnam falls to CommunismBy 1975 North Vietnamese forces had taken Saigon, the South Vietnamese capitalSouth Vietnam was communist</p></li><li><p>Laos and Cambodia fell to communist forces soon after the fall of VietnamThe Khmer Rouge took over Cambodia under Pol Pot.Executed 1.5 million Cambodians who were tainted with Western influence</p></li><li><p>POWs and MIAs2,500 Americans were listed as prisoners of war or missing in actionMany remain unaccounted for</p></li><li><p>Vietnam War Memorialdesigned by Maya Ying LinListed the names of those killed in Vietnam</p></li></ul>