Chapter 24, Section 3 “The Jazz Age”

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Chapter 24, Section 3 The Jazz Age. MINORITIES. African Americans in Early 20 th Century. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>Chapter 24, Section 3 The Jazz Age</p> <p>Chapter 24, Section 3The Jazz AgeMINORITIES</p> <p>African Americans in Early 20th CenturyRedemption with the end of Reconstruction in 1876 and the removal of federal troops from the South, the Southern Democratic Party sought to regain control (often with the support of groups like the KKK)Jim Crow laws set up segregation in public places in the SouthPlessy v. Ferguson US Supreme Court case that said that separate but equal segregation was legalRestrictions on voting in violation of the 15th Amendment Southern states passed laws to restrict their right to vote (Grandfathers clause, literacy tests, poll taxes)</p> <p>Ku Klux KlanRacist group that terrorized African Americans after Reconstruction that saw a resurgence in the 1920s5 million membersHarassed African Americans, but also Catholics, Jews, and immigrantsAlso fought womens rights, urbanization, and technology</p> <p>Marcus Garvey</p> <p>Born in Jamaica and eventually moved to New York in 1917Published a newspaper for African Americans in which he expressed his ideas about how African Americans could improve their place in societyEncouraged black people around the world to express pride in their culture and to unite to build strengthEncouraged African Americans to build economic independence by building their own businesses and supporting other businesses owned by black peopleFounded the Universal Negro Improvement Association to help spread black nationalism (what his ideas are collectively known as)</p> <p>The Great MigrationThe economic opportunities of the era (during WWI and the prosperous 1920s) triggered a widespread migration of black Americans from the rural south to the industrial centers of the north - and especially to New York City In New York and other cities, black Americans explored new opportunities for intellectual and social freedomBlack American artists, writers, and musicians began to use their talents to work for civil rights and obtain equality</p> <p>Jacob LawrenceJacob Lawrence grew up in a settlement house in Harlem during the Harlem RenaissanceLawrence's parents were among those who migrated between 1916-1919, considered the first wave of the migrationHis own life in Harlem, and the struggle of other African Americans inspired his earliest work</p> <p>Lawrences WorkJacob Lawrence painted his Great Migration series during the 1940s to capture the experience of African Americans during the 1920s http://www.columbia.edu/itc/history/odonnell/w1010/edit/migration/migration.html</p> <p>Harlem RenaissanceThe Harlem Renaissance was a flowering of African American social thought which was expressed through PaintingsMusic Dance TheaterLiterature </p> <p>Where is Harlem? </p> <p>New York City New York StateWhere is Harlem? </p> <p>New York City is on Manhattan Island*Manhattan Neighborhoods</p> <p>Harlem*Langston HughesHughes is known for his insightful, colorful, realistic portrayals of black life in America. He wrote poetry, short stories, novels, and plays, and is known for his involvement with the world of jazz and the influence it had on his writing. He wanted to tell the stories of his people in ways that reflected their actual culture. </p> <p>I, too, sing America.</p> <p>I am the darker brother.They send me to eat in the kitchenWhen company comes,But I laugh,And eat well,And grow strong.</p> <p>Tomorrow,I'll be at the tableWhen company comes.Nobody'll dareSay to me,"Eat in the kitchen,Then.</p> <p>Besides,They'll see how beautiful I amAnd be ashamed--</p> <p>I, too, am America.I, too, sing AmericaTo listen to Langston Hughes read his poem, click here.(1920s)'I, Too' written just before Hughes return to the States from Europe and after he'd been denied passage on a ship because of his color, has a contemporary feel in contrast to the mythical dimension of 'The Negro Speaks of Rivers'. It is no less powerful however, in its expression of social injustice. The calm clear statements of the 'I' have an unstoppable force like the progress the poem envisages. Hughes's dignified introductions to these poems and his beautiful speaking voice render them all the more moving. </p> <p>From PoetryArchive.orgWhat is the tone or mood of this poem? Why do you think the poem was written and for what audience? List two things in this poem that tell you about life in the United States at the time.The Jazz AgeThe 1920s are known as the Jazz Age due to the popularity of jazz music in the decadeJazz was a blend of European harmonies and West African rhythms that began in New Orleans and moved north during the Great MigrationYoung people loved it and the fast-paced dances that went with itIt symbolized the divide in the decade between the younger and older generations</p> <p>Duke EllingtonEllington was a jazz composer, conductor, and performer during the Harlem RenaissanceDuring the formative Cotton Club years, he experimented with and developed the style that would quickly bring him worldwide success Ellington would be among the first to focus on musical form and composition in jazzEllington wrote over 2000 pieces in his lifetime</p> <p>The Cotton ClubThe Cotton Club in Harlem opened in 1923Its revue shows featured glamorous dancing girls, acclaimed tap dancers, vaudeville performers, and comicsThe shows featured African American performers and white-only audiences The Duke Ellington Orchestra was the "house" orchestra for a number of years at the Cotton Club</p> <p>Apollo TheaterIn opposition to the Cotton Club was this theater that featured the same performers, but was open to African American audiences</p> <p>Louis ArmstrongLouis Armstrong was a jazz composer and trumpet player during the Harlem Renaissance.He is widely recognized as a founding father of jazz.He appeared in 30 films and averaged 300 concerts per year, performing for both kids on the street and heads of state.Biggest Hits: When the Saints Come Marching In, What a Wonderful World</p> <p>Ascent from Ethiopia, Louis Mailou Jones. 1932Questions to think about:1. What do you see?2. What does each part of the painting represent?5. What actions/activities do you see?6. What questions does this painting raise in your mind?7. How does this painting relate to the Harlem Renaissance?</p> <p>Effects of the Harlem RenaissanceThe Harlem Renaissance helped to redefine how Americans and the world understood African American culture. It integrated black and white cultures, and marked the beginning of a black urban society. The Harlem Renaissance set the stage for the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s.</p> <p>20Negro League BaseballAnother aspect of the movement of African Americans north (and the discrimination they faced there) was the creation of professional baseball teams for just black playersAfrican Americans in northern and eastern cities had the time and money to go to games nowSome of the greatest players of all-time played in these leagues such as Josh Gibson, Satchel Paige, and Jackie Robinson </p> <p>Native Americans</p> <p>Thousands of Native Americans served in World War IThis helped convince Congress to pass the Indian Citizenship Act in 1924 that granted citizenship to all Native AmericansAlso during this time the federal government was trying to buy back as much reservation land as possibleNative Americans organized groups to try to stop this and to build pride in Native American culture Native American leaders withPresident Coolidge after the bill was signed into lawHispanic AmericansHispanic Americans also faced discrimination in the US in the 1920sThis treatment would include segregation and a denial of voting rightsLeague of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) created in 1929 by a group of Mexican American leaders to fight to improve their situation</p> <p>Lost GenerationNickname for the group of young writers and their followers who expressed feelings of disillusionment in the American societyThey were worried about their futures and felt as though American society was losing its sense of moralitySome like Ernest Hemingway moved to Paris to escape our society and writeOthers like F. Scott Fitzgerald stayed and wrote about the problems in our society (in books like The Great Gatsby)</p> <p>F. Scott Fitzgerald writing Ernest HemingwayIn Paris in 1923</p>