Chapter 24 section 3 notes

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The Outer PlanetsUnit7: AstronomyChapter 24: The Solar SystemSection 3: The Outer Planets

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  • 1. Chapter 24 Section 3:Outer Planets

2. 23.4 The Outer Planets

  • Outer Planets:Description
    • Outer Planets:Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
      • Pluto is no longer considered a planet.
    • 4 planets are gaseous giants( Jovian Planets )
    • Pluto and Xenon are frozen spheres
      • Voyager 1 & 2 probed the 4 gaseous giants
        • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

Pgs. 654 - 659 3. Jupiter:

  • Jupiter
    • Largest Planet in our Solar System
    • Fifth planet in order
    • Revolution = 11.9 years to orbit
    • Rotation = 10 hrs. (fastest of all planets)
    • Voyager 1 & 2 (1979) probed Jupiter
      • Gathered information about Jupiters Moons Atmospheres
      • Discovered 3 more moons
      • Discovered a faint dust ring orbiting Jupiter

4.

  • Jupiters Composition:
    • Hydrogen, Helium, Ammonia, Methane, & water vapor
    • Gaseous Atmosphere, Liquid Mantle, & Solid Core
    • Clouds form color bands; Winds up to 400 km/hr.
    • Great Red Spot :ContinuousAtmospheric Storm
    • Lightning has been observed in the atmosphere
    • Radiates 2x as much heat as it receives
    • Believed to be astarthat just didnt make it

5. Images of Jupiter 6. Jupiters Moons

  • Jupiters Moons
    • Jupiter has at least 16 moons
      • Four Largest = Galilean Moons (Discovered in 1610)
      • Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto
    • Io: Closest of the Large moons to Jupiter
      • Most volcanic objects in out Solar System
      • Sulfuric Lava produces Reddish/Orange color
      • Holds a thin sulfur dioxide atmosphere
    • Europa: Composed of solid rock covered with ice
      • Tectonic activity
      • Thin oxygen atmosphere

7.

    • Ganymede:
      • Largest moon in the Solar System
      • Larger than Mercury, Surface covered in Ice
      • Slushy Mantle, Solid rock core
    • Callisto:
      • Composed of heavily cratered Rock/Ice Crust
      • Water/Ice mantle with a rocky core

8. Galilean Moons Io with eruption Europa Ganymede Callisto 9.

  • Saturn
    • Sixth planet; 30 year orbit; 11 hr rotation
    • 1980 & 1981 surveyed by the Voyagers
      • Ringed Planet
      • Second Largest planet
      • Very low density (would float in water)
    • Atmospheric composition:
      • Mostly hydrogen & helium; also ammonia, methane
      • Liquid Hydrogen/helium mantle
      • Small rocky core

10. Saturn:

  • Rings composed of 100s of ringlets
    • Ringlets are made up of ice & rock particles
  • At least 18 moon orbit Saturn (Most of any planet)
    • Largest moon = Titan (2 ndlargest in Solar System)
      • Real atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, & methane
      • Thick, smog clouds cover Titan
      • Surface temp. = -1800 C (-292o F)

11. 12.

  • Uranus
    • Smallest of the gas planets
    • Discovered in 1781
    • 7 thplanet, 84 year orbit, 17 hour rotation **
    • Average Temp. = -328 o F

13. Uranus:

  • Voyager 2 surveyed (1986)
    • Discovered 10 unknown moons (making 15 total)
      • 5 largest almost identical
      • Dark color, lack atmosphere, crater riddled
    • Discovered several dark rings
    • Detected a magnetic field tilted 60 0from axis
    • Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium & Methane
      • Methane gives planet a blue/green tint
      • Liquid mantle of water, methane, & ammonia
      • Rocky core
    • ** Rotational axis lays on its side(Spins like a tire)

14.

  • Neptune
    • Last of the gas planets; discovered in 1846
    • Orbit overlaps Plutos at 2 points
      • Change position 89 & 98
      • 1 orbit = 165 years; 1 rotation = 16 hrs
    • Atmosphere: Hydrogen, Helium, Methane
      • Methane gives Neptune bluish tint
      • Winds = 2200 km/hr; Temperature = -4170 F
      • Has a dark spot = storm in its atmosphere
      • Liquid mantle: water, methane, & ammonia
      • Core: solid rock

15.

  • F.Neptune(continued)
    • Voyager 2 detected 6 moons (Totaling 8)
      • Largest moon =Triton
        • Has a thin nitrogen atmosphere
        • Constantly erupting methane geysers
      • Neptune also has rings (thin & thicken at different places)

16. 17. Pluto:

  • G.Pluto
    • Discovered in 1930; smallest planetoid
    • Between 1979 & 1999 Pluto orbited inside Neptune
      • Rest of the time the ninth planet
      • Orbit = 248 years
      • Has a different orbital plane (tilted 17 0from other planets)

18. Pluto:

  • Pluto (continued)
    • Surrounded by a minimal atmosphere
      • Temperature = -364o F
    • Solid rocky crust
    • One Moon, Charon ( diameter of Pluto)
      • Orbits very close to Pluto
      • Sometimes considered a double planet with Pluto

19.

  • H.Xenon
    • Discovered January 8 th , 2005
      • 20 % larger than Pluto
      • Orbital time unknown; Rotational time unknown
      • Has one known moon
      • Dark & cold (below -2250 C or -373o F)
      • Has not been officially named yet

20. Kuiper Belt

  • Kuiper Belt
    • Discovered by the Hubble Telescope
    • Vast disk of icy comets
    • Located near Neptunes orbit

21.

  • Voyagers Continuing Mission
    • After passing Saturn in 1980 Voyager 1 headed out of our Solar System
    • After passing Pluto in 2000 Voyager 2 headed out of our Solar System
    • Both are still transmitting information back to Earth about deep space, and our suns long range influence of charged particles

22.