chapter 24 section 2 power point the rise of dictatorial regimes
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- Chapter 24 section 2 Power Point The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes
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- BIG IDEA Democracy was under threat in Europe. France and Great Britain remained democratic, but new kinds of dictatorships began to emerge in Italy, France, and Spain. Fascism in Italy, Totalitarianism in Russia, and Authoritarian in Spain.
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- Rise of Dictators By 1939, only 2 democracys prevailed in Europe A Totalitarian regime was a new type of government with the goal of controlling the following: Political, Social, Economic, Intellectual, and Cultural aspects of the peoples minds
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- Totalitarian Goals They wanted to conquer the minds and hearts of their people. Mass propaganda and high speed modern communication was used to achieve this. The masses (people) were expected to be actively involved in achieving state goals. This could include war, a socialist state, or a thousand year empire. (This was Hitlers goal)
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- Fascism in Italy Fascism grew out of unrest in Italy Italy also suffered from the great depression, and inflation soared Workers in agriculture and industry both led massive strikes. The middle class of Italy feared the unrest, and a communist takeover even more. What reasons would they be fearful of this?
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- Benito Mussolini In the early 1920s he set up Europe's first Fascist state. Fascism glorifies the state above the individual. Emphasizes the need for a strong central government with a dictorial ruler The government also stifles all opposition
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- How was Mussolini able to gain power? The middle class was fearful of a communist takeover like in Russia Also a fear of the general disorder in Italy These factors made the fascists attractive He used Nationalistic views. Many Italians were angry that they didnt gain more territory after WWI. King Victor Emanuel made Mussolini the new prime minister
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- New rules under Mussolini Government could stop any publications against the church or monarchy Mussolini could make any laws just by decree Police had unrestricted authority All political parties were outlawed! OVRA was the secret police By 1926 Mussolini was name Il Duce- The Leader.
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- Fascist State: How was power held? OVRA watched citizens political activity and enforced government policy Controlled mass media and used propaganda. Most was simple like this: Mussolini is always right! Goal was to create a new nation of Italians
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- Young Italians Approximately 66% of all 8-18 year olds were members of Fascist youth groups These programs were designed to turn all Italians into fascists. These programs were not very successful Many lifestyles of Italians stayed the same The power structure in Italy also remained in place. Vatican city was given to the Catholic church
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- A New Era in the U.S.S.R. War communism was the new economic policy implemented by Lenin. Government controlled most industries Seized grain from peasants for the army Peasants responded by hoarding the food This, coupled with drought led to a famine between the years 1929 and 1923 where over 5 million people died! By 1921, Russias industrial input was only 20% of its 1913 level. Russia was in BIG trouble!
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- Lenins New Economic Policy Starting in March of 1921, Lenin began pulling Russia back out of the abyss He abandons war communism for the NEP, or New Economic Policy Allowed more capitalist economic policy Peasants could sell their products openly Businesses with 20 or fewer employees could be owned privately Larger industries were still government owned. Russia sees a much improved economy as a result of the NEP
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- The Soviet Union In 1922, Russia officially becomes the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or U.S.S.R. Also the Soviet Union for short The NEP had saved the nation from chaos, but was only a temporary solution. The true goals of communism would soon return.
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- Industrialization Lenin dies in 1924. What happens next? Power struggle in the politburos 7 members One group led by Leon Trotsky wanted to end the NEP, industrialize the nation, and spread communism around the world. Another group representing the people wanted to keep the NEP, did not want to spread communism. Instead they wanted to focus on building a socialist state. They believed industrialization would hurt the peasants.
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- Rise of Stalin Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin were rivals within the same group. Trotsky- War commissar ( he ran the army) Stalin- Party general secretary (he appointed regional, district, city and town officials all over the Soviet Union) Which of the two above positions do you think held more power? Why?
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- Rise of Stalin Stalin ends up gaining support around the country from the thousands of appointees he made from his position He takes power and establishes a dictatorship Trotsky escapes to Mexico where he is murdered. Many believe it was ordered by Stalin
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- Stalins Early Impact The beginning of Stalins reign was the beginning of an economic, social, and political revolution, that was larger than the revolutions of 1917. Why? 1)He ended the NEP 2)Changed the country from agrarian to industrial over night 3)Eliminated all of those who opposed him
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- 5 year plans He instituted 5 year plans These were economic goals for 5 year increments The industrial change was focused on building military products and capital goods such as heavy machines for factories. During this first 5 year period production of heavy machinery increased 4 times, oil production doubled, and steel production grew from 4 to 18 million tons.
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- Cost of Stalins Programs The costs of Stalins programs were enormous Between 1932 and 1940, the labor force increased by several million, yet investment in housing declined Living conditions in cities were terrible Wages actually decreased by 43 % ! Laws limited human movement. If you had a job, the government told you where you lived and if and when you could travel.
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- Collectivization Collectivization was a system where the government eliminated all private farms. Instead the government owned them and the peasants worked on them. Over 10 million peasant households were collectivized Peasants began hoarding food and killing livestock. The resulting famine killed 10 million people between 1932 and 1933.
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- Result of famine in the Ukraine.
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- Reign of Terror Anyone who opposed Stalins plans were sent to prison camps in Siberia, or just simply killed. This period was known as the reign of terror. Bolsheviks, Army officers, Diplomats, Union officials, and intellectuals were sought out. 8 million individuals were arrested and send to Siberian labor camps. None of them ever returned.
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- Authoritarian States (difference with totalitarian) Totalitarian- Government controls ALL aspects of its citizens lives. Authoritarian- Adopted some aspects of the totalitarian regimes, such as police powers, yet they did not want to create a new kind of mass society. Instead they wanted to preserve the existing social order.
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- Eastern Europe After World War I, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia all formed democracies. Soon thereafter they were all replaced with authoritative regimes. Why did this happen?
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- Reasons for Democracys Failure in the East Mostly a rural and agrarian region Most people were illiterate No history of democracy in this region Large land owners dominated most of the land and they feared peasants Ethnic conflict was also a problem in this region. Because of these reasons, landowners, churches, and some middle class citizens looked to authoritative regimes for protection and stability.
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- Spain After 1931, the second republic began falling apart. Rivalries between political parties and personal rivalries between their leaders tore the nation apart.
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- Francisco Franco This man rose to power in the military Became the youngest General in Europe When chaos erupted in the country, his army clashed with the republics government (democratic) This led to a long and brutal civil war
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- Spanish Civil War Foreign intervention complicated this war Italy and Germany helped Franco Sent weapons, money, and soldiers Sent weapons, money, and soldiers Hitler used the Spanish civil war as a testing ground for his new Air Force The city of Guernica was destroyed Pablo Picasso portrayed the devastation in his famous painting, In Guernica
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- In Guernica
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- Spanish Republican Gov. The Spanish government who was fighting Franco, received aid from over 40,000 fore
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10.7 Students analyze the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I. Analyze the rise, aggression, and human costs of totalitarian regimes (Fascist