Chapter 24 section 2 notes

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Chapter 24Section 2: The Inner PlanetsMinersville Area School District8th Grade General ScienceMr. Motuk

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<ul><li> 1. Chapter 24:Section 2 The Inner Planets</li></ul> <p> 2. II.The Inner Planets </p> <ul><li>A.CalledTerrestrial Planets </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>1.First four planets:Mercury ,Venus ,Earth ,Mars </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>2.All have a solid crust surface </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>3.Most have an atmosphere of some kind</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>4.Most have at least one moon </li></ul></li></ul> <p>Pgs. 646 - 650 3. </p> <ul><li>B.Mercury </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Closest planet to the Sun </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Revolution time: 88 days </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Rotation time: 59 days </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Third smallest planet </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Probed byMariner 10 (1974-1975) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Imaged 45% of surface </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Surface crater riddled (similar to our Moon) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Has large cliff lined valleys </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Has a weak magnetic field (indicates iron core) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 4. </p> <ul><li>B.Mercury </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Probed byMariner 10 (1974-1975) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Very thin atmosphere:</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>1.Hydrogen, Helium, Sodium &amp; Potassium </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Surface Temperature: </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>1.Daytime: 842o F </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>2.Night: -274o F </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 5. </p> <ul><li>C.Venus </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Second planet from the sun </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Revolution: 255 days </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Rotation: Retrograde = spins backwards </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Probed by Venera (Russian) in 1970 </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Probed by Magellan (US) in 1990 to 1994 </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li> Earths Twin Sister </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Size, Mass, Gravity similar to Earth </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 6. </p> <ul><li>Venus </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>3 .Atmosphere: Thick &amp; toxic </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Air Pressure = 90 times that of Earth </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Mostly carbon dioxide </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Clouds: Rain sulfuric acid </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Only allow 2% of sunlight through to surface </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Solar energy trapped = extreme Greenhouse Effect </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 7. Chapter 23:Section 2 </p> <ul><li>C.Venus (continued) </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Surface temperature =878o F </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Surface covered by craters, fault lines, &amp; Volcanoes </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Winds = 300 km / hr. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 8. Earth: </p> <ul><li>D.Earth </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li> Third Rock from the Sun </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Average distance from the sun = 93,000,000 miles </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Only planet water exists as 3 states of matter </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Solid, Liquid, &amp; Gas </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Atmosphere protects the planet </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>From meteor strikes (most burn up) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Intense Solar Radiation (UV, X-Rays, Gamma Rays, etc.) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 9. Ch 23:Section 2 </p> <ul><li>E.Mars </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Fourth Planet from the Sun </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li> The Red Planet </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Surface mainly iron oxide dust (Rust) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Revolution time: 687 days </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Has polar ice caps </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>a.Northern: frozen Water (H 2 O) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Southern: frozen Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 10. </p> <ul><li>F.Discoveries on Mars </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Mariner 9(19711972) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Discovered dried riverbeds </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Olympus Mons:Largest know volcano in the Solar System </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Rift Zones: Deep crustal tears </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Viking 1 &amp; 2 (1976) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Each consisted of Orbiter &amp; Lander </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Photographed entire Martian surface (Orbiters ) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 11. </p> <ul><li>F.Discoveries on Mars (continued) </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Marss Atmosphere </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Studied meteorological, chemical, &amp; biological aspects</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Discovered barren, rocky, windswept surface </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Atmosphere: very thin; Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen &amp; Argon </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Surface Temperatures: 95 o F (day) to -274o F (night)</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Temperature changes create intense winds &amp; dust storms </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>NO evidence of life (past or present) </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 12. 13. </p> <ul><li>Martian Seasons </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Marss axis of rotation is tilted 25 degrees, which is close to Earths tilt of 23.5 degrees.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Because of this Mars goes through seasons as it orbits the Sun.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>As one ice cap grows smaller, the other grows larger.</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>The color of the ice caps and other areas of Mars also changes with the seasons.</li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>This is caused by the movement of dust and sand during dust storms.</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <p> 14. </p> <ul><li>Martian Moons </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Mars has small, crater riddled moons </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Phobos:25 km in diameter </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Slowly spiraling toward Mars </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Expected impact of surface in 50 million years </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Deimos:13 km in diameter </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Both are irregularly shaped </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Both orbit Mars several times a day </li></ul></li></ul> <p> 15. 16. Mission to Mars ? </p> <ul><li>How should Mars be explored? </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Travel time to Mars is a consideration </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Orbits at their closest = 1.5 years travel time </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Orbits at their farthest = over 5 years travel time </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Length of travel time invites great risks to humans </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Should humans explore Mars? </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Humans do more meticulous &amp; detailed work than probes </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Zero gravity travel weakens muscles &amp; bones </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Body fluids move upward (increase kidney function) </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Radiation exposure drastically increased </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li>Should robots explore Mars? </li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Robots arent affected by 0 Gs; travel time not a factor </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li>Robots using videotronics can be controlled from Earth </li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Signals can have up to 20 min. delay </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul> <ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Robots cannot improvise &amp; adapt to changing situations</li></ul></li></ul></li></ul>