CHAPTER 24 SECTION 1 LATIN AMERICAN PEOPLES WIN INDEPENDENCE

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> CHAPTER 24 SECTION 1 LATIN AMERICAN PEOPLES WIN INDEPENDENCE </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> BIG IDEA AMERICAN REVOLUTION, FRENCH REVOLUTION &amp; ENLIGHTENMENT CHANGED IDEAS ABOUT WHO SHOULD CONTROL GOVERNMENT. LATIN AMERICA RESENTED THE DOMINATION OF EUROPEAN COLONIAL POWERS. TIME IS RIGHT TO GAIN CONTROL OF THE LAND </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> REVOLUTION IN HAITI HAITI FRENCH COLONY CALLED SAINT DOMINGUE WAS FIRST LATIN AMERICAN TERRITORY TO FREE ITSELF FROM EUROPEAN RULE </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> SLAVES TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE 500,000 AFRICANS; WORKED ON PLANTATIONS EX-SLAVE WHO LED REVOLT IN 1791; VERY SKILLED AT FINDING OPENINGS IN ENEMY LINES; TOOK 2/3 OF EASTERN HISPANIOLA &amp; FREED THE SLAVES </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> FRANCES RESPONSE SEND 16,000 TROOPS TO STOP UPRISING; TOUSSAINT AGREED TO STOP REVOLUTION IF SLAVERY WAS ENDED; ACCUSED OF PLANNING ANOTHER UPRISING HE WAS ARRESTED &amp; SENT TO PRISON IN FRENCH ALPS AND DIED 10 MONTHS LATER IN 1803 </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> JEAN-JACQUES DESSALINES TOUSSAINTS GENERAL; TOOK UP THE FIGHT FOR FREEDOM; IN 1804, DECLARED THE COLONY INDEPENDENT COUNTRY; FIRST BLACK COUNTRY TO FREE ITSELF FROM EUROPEAN CONTROL; CALLED HAITI MOUNTAINOUS LAND </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> LATIN AMERICA SWEEPS TO FREEDOM </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> PENINSULARES TOP OF SPANISH AMERICAN SOCIETY; MEN WHO WERE BORN IN SPAIN; ONLY GROUP WHO CAN HOLD HIGH OFFICE IN SPANISH COLONIAL GOVERNMENT; WHY? </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> CREOLES MESTIZOS SPANIARDS BORN IN LATIN AMERICA; COULD NOT HOLD HIGH LEVEL POLITICAL OFFICE; COULD RISE IN ARMY RANK; BEST EDUCATED PERSON MIXED OF EUROPEAN &amp; INDIAN ANCESTRY </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> MULATTOS AFRICANS INDIANS PERSON OF MIXED EUROPEAN &amp; AFRICAN ANCESTRY ONE STEP FROM BOTTOM AT THE BOTTOM OF THE SOCIAL LADDER; LITTLE ECONOMIC VALUE </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> NAPOLEONS CONQUEST REBELLION FRENCH KING CONQUERS SPAIN IN 1808; REVOLTS BREAK OUT IN SPANISH COLONIES; NAMED HIS BROTHER JOSEPH KING OF SPAIN; WHY WASNT SPAIN LOYAL TO THE NEW KING? BRAKES OUT IN 1810 &amp; NAPOLEON DEFEATED IN 1814 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> THE LIBERTADORES END SPANISH RULE SIMON BOLIVAR ONE OF TWO BRILLIANT GENERALS THAT LED SOUTH AMERICA TO INDEPENDENCE. WAS CALLED THE LIBERTADOR, WHICH MEANS LIBERATOR. WAS ROMANTIC &amp; PRACTICAL, A WRITER &amp; A FIGHTER </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> NATIVE OF VENEZUELA SURPRISED &amp; DEFEATED THE SPANISH ARMY IN BOGOTA IN 1819. 1821 WON VENEZUELA INDEPENDENCE MET UP WITH JOSE DE SAN MARTIN IN ECUADOR </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> JOSE DE SAN MARTIN OTHER GREAT LIBERATOR; SIMPLE &amp; MODEST MAN; STRICT MILITARY DISCIPLINE BUT ALSO SHOWED CONCERN FOR WELL BEING OF HIS TROOPS </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> NATIVE OF ARGENTINA DECLARED INDEPENDENT IN 1816 SPAIN STILL CONTROLLED CHILE &amp; PERU FREED CHILE IN 1817 SAN MARTIN &amp; BOLIVAR JOIN AND DEFEAT SPANISH ARMY IN PERU IN 1824 VENEZUELA, COLOMBIA, PANAMA, ECUADOR WERE ALL UNITED COUNTRY AND CALLED GRAN COLOMBIA </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> MEXICO ENDS SPANISH RULE ETHNIC &amp; RACIAL GROUPS INDIANS &amp; MESTIZOS MIXED MORE FREELY IN MEXICO THAN OTHER LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES PLAYED THE LEADING ROLE IN THE REVOLUTION </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> MIGUEL HIDALGO PRIEST IN SMALL VILLAGE OF DOLORES, POOR BUT EDUCATED, CALLED FOR REBELLION IN 1810. ARMY OF 80,000 EVENTUALLY DEFEATED IN 1811 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> JOSE MARIA MORELOS MEXICOS INDEPENDENCE REBELS FOLLOWED MORELOS FOR 4 YEARS AFTER HIDALGO BUT EVENTUALLY DEFEATED IN 1815. IN 1820 A LIBERAL GROUP IN SPAIN TOOK POWER. MEXICOS CREOLES FEARED LOSS OF PRIVELEGES &amp; SUPPORTED INDEPENDENCE. AGUSTIN DE ITURBIDE PROCLAIMED INDEPENDENCE IN 1821. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> ITURBIDE DECLARED HIMSELF EMPEROR BUT REFUSED TO RECOGNIZE THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE WHY? OVERTHROWN IN 1823 &amp; CENTRAL AMERICA DECLARED INDEPENDENCE FROM MEXICO </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> BRAZILS ROYAL LIBERATOR NO VIOLENCE OR BLOODSHED FOR INDEPENDENCE FROM PORTUGAL PORTUGESE RAN THEIR EMPIRE FROM BRAZIL FOR 6 YEARS BEFORE RETURNING HOME DOM PEDRO SON OF KING JOHN REMAIN IN BRAZIL 8,000 BRAZILIANS SIGNED A PETITION ASKING FOR INDEPENDENCE PEDRO AGREES IN ON SEPTEMBER 7, 1822 &amp; DECLARES BRAZIL INDEPENDENT </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> SECTION 2 EUROPE FACES REVOLUTIONS </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> BIG IDEA AS REVOLUTIONS SHOOK THE COLONIES IN LATIN AMERICA, EUROPE WAS ALSO UNDERGOING DRAMATIC CHANGES AND REVOLUTIONS ERUPTED ACROSS EUROPE BETWEEN 1815 AND 1848. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> CLASH OF PHILOSOPHIES CONSERVATIVE LIBERAL WEALTHY PROPERTY OWNERS; PROTECT TRADITIONAL MONARCHIES MIDDLE CLASS BUSINESS LEADERS &amp; MERCHANTS; GIVE MORE POWER TO ELECTED PARLIAMENTS BUT ONLY EDUCATED &amp; LANDOWNERS VOTE </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> RADICAL FAVORED DRASTIC CHANGE TO EXTEND DEMOCRACY TO ALL; SAME IDEALS AS FRENCH REVOLUTION, LIBERTY, EQUALITY, AND BROTHERHOOD </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> NATIONLISM DEVELOPS NATIONALISM BELIEF THAT PEOPLES GREATEST LOYALTY SHOULD BE TO THE NATIONS PEOPLE WHO SHARE COMMON CULTURE &amp; HISTORY. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> NATION-STATE LIBERALS &amp; RADICALS WHEN A NATION HAD ITS OWN INDEPENDENT GOVERNMENT, DEFENDS THE NATIONS TERRITORY &amp; WAY OF LIFE. WERE THE GROUP OF PEOPLE WHO BELIEVED IN NATIONALISM; MIDDLE CLASS TEACHERS, LAWYERS, &amp; BUSINESS PEOPLE LED STRUGGLE FOR CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT &amp; FORMATION OF NATION STATES </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> NATIONALISTS CHALLENGE CONSERVATIVE POWER GREEKS REVOLUTIONS BRAKE OUT FIRST PEOPLE TO WIN SELF-RULING DURING THIS PEORIOD; REBELLED AGAINST OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN 1821 ITALY, BELGIAN, POLAND. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> THE BALKANS OTTOMAN EMPIRE CONTROLLED GREECE, ALBANIA, BULGARIA, ROMANIA, TURKEY &amp; YUGOSLAVIA </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> SUPPORT GROWS BRITAIN, FRANCE, &amp; RUSSIAN FLEET DESTROY OTTOMAN FLEET AND SIGN TREATY MAKING GREECE INDEPENDENT KINGDOM IN 1830 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> CONSERVATIVES REGAIN THEIR POWER BY 1848 REVOLUTIONARIES FAILED TO UNITE THEMSELVES OR THEIR NATIONS. CONSERVATISM ONCE AGAIN CONTROLLED MOST GOVERNMENTS IN 1849. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> RADICALS CHANGE FRANCE RADICALS IN FRANCE 1830, KING CHARLES X TRIES TO RETURN FRANCE TO ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, RIOTS BROKE OUT &amp; CHARLES FLEES TO GREAT BRITAIN; REPLACED BY LOUIS-PHILIPPE WHO SUPPORTED LEBERAL REFORMS </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> THE THIRD REPUBLIC LOUIS-PHILLIPPE FELL FROM POPULAR FAVOR IN 1848, PARIS MOB OVERTURNED A MONARCH AND ESTABLISHED A REPUBLIC. REPUBLIC BEGAN TO FALL APART IMMEDIATLEY </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> RADICALS SPLIT ONE SIDE ONLY WANTED POLITCAL REFORM OTHER GROUP WANTED SOCIAL &amp; ECONOMIC REFORM VIOLENE ERRUPTED LATER IN 1848, A MODERATE CONSTITUTION WAS DRAWN UP AND CALLED FOR PARLIAMENENT &amp; PRESIDENT TO BE ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> LOUIS-NAPOLEON DECEMBER 1848, WON PRESIDENT ELECTION. FOUR YEARS LATER BECAME EMPEROR &amp; WAS ACCEPTED BY PEOPLE. BUILT RAILROADS, ENCOURAGED INDUSTRIALIZATION, PROMOTED PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAM. UNEMPLOYMENT DECREASED &amp; COUNTRY EXPERIENCED REAL PROSPERITY </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> REFORM IN RUSSIA DIDNT LEAP INTO MODERN INDUSTRIALIZED WORLD MANY PEOPLE BELIEVED IT WAS TIME TO END SERFDOM, IT WAS MORALLY WRONG &amp; HELD BACK ECONOMY CZARS RELUCTANT BECAUSE FREEING SERFS MEANT THEY WOULD LOSE SUPPORT FROM LANDOWNERS AND EVENTUALLY LOSE POWER </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> ALEXANDER II 1 ST REFORM CZAR WHO BELIEVED IT WAS TIME TO MODERNIZE RUSSIA AND CATCH UP WITH WESTERN EUROPE. FREEING THE SERFS IN 1861 ONLY WENT HALFWAY. PEASANT COMMUNITIES RATHER THAN INDIVIDUALS RECEIVED ABOUT HALF OF FARMLAND. GOVERNMENT PAID NOBLES FOR THEIR LAND. PEASANTS HAD 49 YEARS TO PAY THE GOVERNMENT BACK. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> ASSASSINATED ALEXANDER III BEFORE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL REFORMS REALLY TOOK SHAPE, ALEXANDER WAS ASSASSINATED IN 1881. TIGHTENED CZARIST CONTROL; ENCOURAGED INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT. NATIONALISM WAS A DRIVING FORCE BEHIND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> SECTION 3 NATIONALISM CASE STUDY: ITALY &amp; GERMANY </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> BIG IDEA NATIONALISM WAS THE MOST POWERFUL IDEA OF THE 1800S. IT SHAPED NEW COUNTRIES AND SPLIT UP OLD ONES. IT FED THE DESIRE OF MOST GROUPS FREE OF THE RULE OF EMPIRES AND GOVERN THEMSELVES IN THEIR TRADITIONAL LANDS. </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> NATIONALISM: A FORCE FOR UNITY OR DISUNITY </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> NATIONALISM SHAKES AGING EMPIRES AUSTRIAN EMPIRE IN 1866, EMPEROR FRANCIS JOSEPH SPLIT AUSTRIA INTO TWO HALFS AND HE RULED BOTH NATIONALIST DISPUTES WEAKENED IF FOR 40 YEARS WWI AUSTRIA HUNGARY BROKE INTO SEVERAL SEPARATE NATION-STATES </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> RUSSIAN EMPIRE CRUMBLES NATIONALIST BROKE UP 370 YEARS OF CZAR CONTROL CZAR ALSO RULED OVER UKRAINIANS, POLES, LLITHUANIANS, LATVIANS, ESTONIANS, FINNS, JEWS, ROMANIANS, GEORGIANS, ARMENIANS, TURKS &amp; OTHERS </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> RUSSIFICATION ROMANOV DYNASTY FORCED RUSSIAN CULTURE ON ALL THE ETHNIC GROUPS IN THE EMPIRE. THIS ACTUALLY STRENGTHENED ETHNIC NATIONALIST FEELING &amp; HELPED TO DISUNIFY RUSSIA WWI &amp; COMMUNIST REVOLUTION TOOK STRANGLEHOLD AND LAST ROMANOV CZAR GAVE UP POWER IN 1917 </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> OTTOMAN EMPIRE WEAKENS TURKS RULED THE OTTOMAN EMPRIRE AND CONTROLLED GREEKS, SLAVS, ARABS, BULGARIANS, &amp; ARMENIANS. OTTOMANS GRANTED EQUAL CITIZENSHIP TO ALL PEOPLE AFTER RECEIVING PRESSURE FROM BRITISH AND FRENCH CONSERVATIVES WERE ANGERED BY THIS AND EMPIRE SPLIT UP SHORTLY AFTER WWI </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> CASE STUDY: ITALY ITALIAN NATIONALISTS LOOKED FOR LEADERSHIP FROM KINGDOM OF PIEDMONT-SARDINIA </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> CAMILLO DI CAVOUR NAMED PRIME MINISTER FRENCH EMPEROR NAPOLEON III AGREED TO HELP DRIVE AUSTRIA OUT OF NORTHERN ITALY IN 1858, FRENCH &amp; SARDINIAN ARMY WON TWO QUICK VICTORIES AND TAKING NORTHERN ITALY, EXCEPT VENETIA. </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI IN 1860, LED SMALL ITALIAN NATIONALIST IN SOUTH AND CAPTURED SICILY. KNOWN AS RED SHIRTS CAUSE HE ALWAYS WORE A BRIGHT RED SHIRT ALONG WITH HIS FOLLOWERS. UNITED SOUTHERN AREAS WITH KINGDOM OF PIEDMONT-SARDINIA &amp; WAS RULED BY KING VICTOR EMMANUEL II </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> IN 1866 AUSTRIAN PROVINCE OF VENETIA, WHICH INCLUDED CITY OF VENICE BECAME PART OF ITALY 1870, TOOK LAST PART OF TERRITORY KNOWN AS THE PAPAL STATES. CITY OF ROME CAME UNDER ITALIAN CONTROL AND EVENTUALLY BECAME CAPITAL OF THE UNITED KINGDOME OF ITALY. </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> CASE STUDY: GERMANY PRUSSIA LEADS GERMAN UNIFICATION MAINLY GERMAN POPULATION NATIONALISM UNIFIED BERLIN RIOTERS FORCED CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION TO WRITE UP A LIBERAL CONSTITUTION HELPING PAVE THE WAY OF UNIFICATION. </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> WILHELM JUNKERS 1861 WILHELM I SUCCEEDED FREDERICK WILLIAM TO THE THRONE DID NOT RECEIVE MONEY FOR REFORM FROM LIBERAL PARLIAMENT SUPPORTED WILHELM, STRONG CONSERVATIVE MEMBERS OF PRUSSIAS WEALTHY LANDOWNING CLASS. </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> OTTO VON BISMARK CHOSEN AS WILHELMS PRIME MINISTER. MASTER OF REALPOLITIK- MEANS POLITICS OF REALITY WOULD RULE WITHOUTH CONSENT FROM PARLIAMENT OR LEGAL BUDGET. VIOLATED CONSTITUTION PARLIAMENT &amp; CONSTITUTION WOULD GROW WEAKER WHILE KING &amp; PRIME MINISTER WOULD GROW STRONGER </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> PRUSSIA EXPANDS SEVEN WEEKS WAR 1864, PRUSSIA &amp; AUSTRIA FORM ALLIANCE AND DEFECAT DENMARK AND GAIN NEIGHBORING PROVINCES CONFLICT WITH AUSTRIA &amp; PRUSSIA OVER TERRITORY. PRUSSIA DESTROYS AUSTRIA GAINING MORE POWER &amp; TERRITORTY </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR KAISER (EMPEROR) FINAL STAGE IN GERMAN UNIFICATION &amp; ACCEPTED PRUSSIAN LEADERSHIP. KING WILHELM I OF PRUSSIA IS CROWNED IN 1871 IN VERSAILLES, FRANCE. </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> SHIFT IN POWER IN 1815- FIVE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE- BRITAIN, FRANCE, AUSTRIA, PRUSSIA &amp; RUSSIA IN 1871- BRITAIN &amp; GERMANY (PRUSSIA) CLEARLY MOST POWERFUL MILITRILY &amp; ECONOMICALLY AUSTRIA &amp; RUSSIA WERE FAR BEHIND FRANCE STRUGGLED SOMEWHERE IN THE MIDDLE </li> </ul>