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  • Lesson Lesson 11 What Are Communicable Diseases?

    When was the last time you had a cold?

    How did you treat it?

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Lesson Objectives

    Identify the types of pathogens that cause communicable diseases

    Describe the ways in which communicable diseases are spread

    Develop strategies to help prevent communicable diseases

    In this lesson, you will learn to:

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Microorganisms and Communicable Diseases

    Although most microorganismsliving things too small to be seen without a microscopeare harmless, a few can cause communicable diseases.

    Knowing how communicable diseases spread can help you choose behaviors to reduce your risk of getting them.

    What Are Communicable Diseases?

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Pathogens

    Common pathogens include certain viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias.

    Pathogens cause diseases.

    If the body is not able to fight off an infection, a disease develops.

    Causes of Communicable Diseases

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Diseases by Type of Pathogen

    Causes of Communicable Diseases

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Viruses

    Viruses by themselves are inactivethey need living cells to reproduce.

    After a virus penetrates a cell (called the host cell), the virus takes control of the cell to manufacture more viruses.

    The new viruses burst from the cell, usually killing it, and take over other cells.

    Viruses usually run their course and eventually are killed by the immune system.

    Antibiotics do not work against viruses.

    Causes of Communicable Diseases

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Bacteria

    Most bacteria are harmless, and many types are essential for life.

    When bacteria enter the body, they multiply through cell division.

    Some bacterial pathogens, such as the ones that cause tetanus, produce a toxin.

    Bacteria are usually destroyed by the immune system.

    Most bacterial diseases can be treated with antibiotics.

    Causes of Communicable Diseases

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Other Types of Pathogens

    Fungi are plantlike organisms. Some types can cause diseases of the skin and diseases of the mucous membranes.

    Protozoans are single-celled organisms that are larger and more complex than bacteria.

    Rickettsias are pathogens that resemble bacteria. Often these organisms enter humans through the bites of insects.

    Causes of Communicable Diseases

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Transmission of Communicable Diseases

    How Communicable Diseases Are Transmitted

    Transmission can occur through direct and indirect contact and through breathing contaminated air.

    If you know how they are spread, you can take precautions and avoid infection.

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Direct Contact

    Direct contact includes touching, biting, kissing, and sexual contact.

    Sneezing and coughing can spray infectious droplets of saliva or mucus into a nearby persons eyes, nose, or mouth.

    A pregnant female may also transmit an infection to her unborn child through the placenta.

    How Communicable Diseases Are Transmitted

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Indirect Contact

    Contaminated objects: Inanimate objects can become contaminated with infectious discharges or secretions.

    Vectors: Common vectors include flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Lyme disease and malaria are spread by vectors.

    Water and food: Careless handling and storage of food and water supplies that become contaminated with human or animal feces are major sources of contamination and illness.

    How Communicable Diseases Are Transmitted

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Airborne Transmission

    Airborne transmission is different from direct contact because the pathogens dont settle quickly on surfaces.

    You dont have to be close to an infected person to inhale the pathogens.

    Diseases that are transmitted this way include chicken pox, tuberculosis, and influenza.

    How Communicable Diseases Are Transmitted

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Washing Hands

    Handwashing is the single most effective strategy for preventing the spread of disease.

    Wash your hands before you prepare food, before you eat, and after you use the bathroom.

    Make it a habit to wash your hands after handling animals (especially reptiles) or animal wastes.

    When someone in your home is ill, keep hands clean to prevent the spread of pathogens.

    Strategies for Preventing Communicable Disease

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Handling Food Properly

    Foodborne illness occurs in places where food is handled improperly.

    Always wash your hands before you handle food.

    Use paper towels, not dishcloths or sponges, to keep surfaces and equipment clean.

    Separate raw meat from other foods. Cook food to its proper temperature.

    Chill cold and leftover foods quickly to the proper temperature.

    Strategies for Preventing Communicable Disease

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Other Prevention Strategies

    Avoid sharing eating utensils, makeup, combs and brushes, and other personal items.

    Avoid unnecessary contact with people who are ill.

    Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze.

    Be sure you are vaccinated against particular diseases as recommended by your physician.

    Practice abstinence from sexual activity.

    Learn to manage stress.

    Strategies for Preventing Communicable Disease

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Quick Review

    Q. Which of the following is NOT a type of common pathogen and the disease it causes?

    1. Viruses: influenza, bacteria, tuberculosis

    2. Cortex: pathenogens, bacteria, cirrhosis

    3. Fungi: athletes foot, protozoans, malaria

    4. Rickettsias: typhus, bacteria, tuberculosis

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  • Lesson Lesson 11

    Click Next to attempt another question.

    A. 2. Cortex: pathenogens, bacteria, cirrhosisTypes of common pathogens and the diseases they cause do NOT include cortexpathenogens, bacteria, cirrhosis.

    Quick Review - Answer

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  • Lesson Lesson 11Quick Review

    Q. Pathogens can spread through direct and indirect contact and through breathing contaminated air. Which of the following is NOT a habit you can adopt to limit their spread?

    1. Washing your hands

    2. Inspecting your throat for redness and mucus

    3. Covering your mouth when you cough or sneeze

    4. Being sure you are vaccinated against particular diseases as recommended by your physician

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  • Lesson Lesson 11

    Click Next to attempt another question.

    A. 2. Inspecting your throat for redness and mucusPathogens can spread through direct and indirect contact and through breathing contaminated air. Habits that can be adopted to limit their spread does NOT include inspecting your throat for redness and mucus.

    Quick Review - Answer

    file:///Ch24Resources.ppt
  • Lesson Lesson 11Quick Review

    Q. Your risk of getting a communicable disease is less if you1. eat a balanced diet.

    2. participate in regular physical activity.

    3. avoid the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs.

    4. All of the above

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  • Lesson Lesson 11

    Click Next to attempt another question.

    A. 4. All of the aboveYour risk of getting a communicable disease is less if you eat a balanced diet; participate in regular physical activity; avoid the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs.

    Quick Review - Answer

    file:///Ch24Resources.ppt
  • Lesson Lesson 11Quick Review

    Q. The fungus that causes athletes foot lives in warm, moist places. It is a pathogen that can be easily caught at the gym or in communal showers.

    Choose the appropriate option.

    True

    False

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  • Lesson Lesson 11

    A. True. The fungus that causes athletes foot lives in warm, moist places. It is a pathogen that can be easily caught at the gym or in communal showers.

    Quick Review - Answer

    file:///Ch24Resources.ppt
  • Lesson Lesson 11

    End of Lesson 1

    Click Home to view the Main menu.

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  • Lesson Lesson 11

    A. Correct! Types of common pathogens and the diseases they cause do NOT include: cortexpathenogens, bacteria, cirrhosis.

    Quick Review - Answer

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  • Lesson Lesson 11

    You have answered the question incorrectly. Go back to try again, or click Next to view the correct answer.

    Quick Review - Answer

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  • Lesson Lesson 11

    A. Correct! Pathogens can spread through direct and indirect contact and through breathing contaminated air. Habits that can be adopted to limit their spread does NOT include: inspecting your throat for redness and mucus.

    Quick Review - Answer

    file:///Ch24Resources.ppt
  • Lesson Lesson 11

    You have answered the question incorrectly. Go back to try again, or click Next to view the correct answer.

    Quick Review - Answer

    file:///Ch24Resources.ppt
  • Lesson Lesson 11

    A. Correct! Your risk of getting a communicable disease is less if you do all of the following: eat a balanced diet; participate in regular physical activity; avoid the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs.

    Quick

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