# Chapter 23: The Evolution of Populations

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Chapter 23: The Evolution of Populations. Question?. Is the unit of evolution the individual or the population ? Answer while evolution effects individuals, it can only be tracked through time by looking at populations. So what do we study?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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• Chapter 23:The Evolution of Populations

• Question?Is the unit of evolution the individual or the population?Answer while evolution effects individuals, it can only be tracked through time by looking at populations.

• So what do we study?We need to study populations, not individuals.We need a method to track the changes in populations over time. This is the area of Biology called population genetics.

• Population GeneticsThe study of genetic variation in populations.Represents the reconciliation of Mendelism and Darwinism.

• Modern SynthesisUses population genetics as the means to track and study evolution.Looks at the genetic basis of variation and natural selection.

• PopulationA localized group of individuals of the same species.

• SpeciesA group of similar organisms.A group of populations that could interbreed.

• Gene PoolThe total aggregate of genes in a population.If evolution is occurring, then changes must occur in the gene pool of the population over time.

• MicroevolutionChanges in the relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool.

• Hardy-Weinberg TheoremDeveloped in 1908. Mathematical model of gene pool changes over time.

• Basic Equationp + q = 1p = % dominant alleleq = % recessive allele

• Expanded Equationp + q = 1(p + q)2 = (1)2p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

• Genotypesp2 = Homozygous Dominants 2pq = Heterozygous q2 = Homozygous Recessives

• Example CalculationLets look at a population where: A = red flowers a = white flowers

• Starting PopulationN = 500Red = 480 (320 AA+ 160 Aa)White = 20Total Genes = 2 x 500 = 1000

• Dominant AlleleA = (320 x 2) + (160 x 1) = 800 = 800/1000 A = 80%

• Recessive Allelea = (160 x 1) + (20 x 2) = 200/1000 = .20 a = 20%

• A and a in HW equationCross: Aa X AaResult = AA + 2Aa + aaRemember: A = p, a = q

• Substitute the values for A and ap2 + 2pq + q2 = 1(.8)2 + 2(.8)(.2) + (.2)2 = 1.64 + .32 + .04 = 1

• Dominant AlleleA = p2 + pq = .64 + .16 = .80 = 80%

• Recessive Allelea = pq + q2 = .16 + .04 = .20 = 20%

• ResultGene pool is in a state of equilibrium and has not changed because of sexual reproduction.No Evolution has occurred.

• Importance of Hardy-WeinbergYardstick to measure rates of evolution.Predicts that gene frequencies should NOT change over time as long as the HW assumptions hold.Way to calculate gene frequencies through time.

• Example What is the frequency of the PKU allele?PKU is expressed only if the individual is homozygous recessive (aa).

• PKU FrequencyPKU is found at the rate of 1/10,000 births.PKU = aa = q2 q2 = .0001 q = .01

• Dominant Allelep + q = 1 p = 1- q p = 1- .01 p = .99

• Expanded Equationp2 + 2pq + q2 = 1(.99)2 + 2(.99x.01) + (.01)2 = 1.9801 + .0198 + .0001 = 1

• Final ResultsNormals (AA) = 98.01%Carriers (Aa) = 1.98%PKU (aa) = .01%

• AP Problems Using Hardy-WeinbergSolve for q2 (% of total).Solve for q (equation).Solve for p (1- q).H-W is always on the national AP Bio exam (but no calculators are allowed).

• Hardy-Weinberg Assumptions1. Large Population2. Isolation3. No Net Mutations4. Random Mating5. No Natural Selection

• If H-W assumptions hold true:The gene frequencies will not change over time.Evolution will not occur.But, how likely will natural populations hold to the H-W assumptions?

• MicroevolutionCaused by violations of the 5 H-W assumptions.

• Causes of Microevolution1. Genetic Drift2. Gene Flow3. Mutations4. Nonrandom Mating5. Natural Selection

• Genetic DriftChanges in the gene pool of a small population by chance.Types:1. Bottleneck Effect2. Founder's Effect

• By Chance

• Bottleneck EffectLoss of most of the population by disasters.Surviving population may have a different gene pool than the original population.

• ResultSome alleles lost.Other alleles are over-represented.Genetic variation usually lost.

• ImportanceReduction of population size may reduce gene pool for evolution to work with. Ex: Cheetahs

• Founder's EffectGenetic drift in a new colony that separates from a parent population.Ex: Old-Order Amish

• ResultGenetic variation reduced.Some alleles increase in frequency while others are lost (as compared to the parent population).

• ImportanceVery common in islands and other groups that don't interbreed.

• Gene FlowMovement of genes in/out of a population.Ex:ImmigrationEmigration

• ResultChanges in gene frequencies.

• MutationsInherited changes in a gene.

• ResultMay change gene frequencies (small population).Source of new alleles for selection.Often lost by genetic drift.

• Nonrandom MatingFailure to choose mates at random from the population.

• CausesInbreeding within the same neighborhood.Assortative mating (like with like).

• ResultIncreases the number of homozygous loci.Does not in itself alter the overall gene frequencies in the population.

• Natural SelectionDifferential success in survival and reproduction.Result - Shifts in gene frequencies.

• CommentAs the Environment changes, so does Natural Selection and Gene Frequencies.

• ResultIf the environment is "patchy", the population may have many different local populations.

• Genetic Basis of Variation1. Discrete Characters Mendelian traits with clear phenotypes.2. Quantitative Characters Multigene traits with overlapping phenotypes.

• PolymorphismThe existence of several contrasting forms of the species in a population.Usually inherited as Discrete Characteristics.

• Examples Garter SnakesGaillardia

• Human ExampleABO Blood GroupsMorphs = A, B, AB, O

• Other examples

• Quantitative CharactersAllow continuous variation in the population.Result Geographical VariationClines: a change along a geographical axis

• Yarrow Plants and Altitude

• Sources of Genetic VariationMutations.Recombination though sexual reproduction.Crossing-overRandom fertilization

• Preserving Genetic Variation1. Diploidy - preserves recessives as heterozygotes.2. Balanced Polymorphisms - preservation of diversity by natural selection.

• ExampleHeterozygote Advantage - When the heterozygote or hybrid survives better than the homozygotes. Also called Hybrid vigor.

• ResultCan't bred "true and the diversity of the population is maintained.Ex Sickle Cell Anemia

• CommentPopulation geneticists believe that ALL genes that persist in a population must have had a selective advantage at one time.Ex Sickle Cell and Malaria, Tay-Sachs and Tuberculosis

• Fitness - DarwinianThe relative contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation.

• Relative FitnessContribution of one genotype to the next generation compared to other genotypes.

• Rate of SelectionDiffers between dominant and recessive alleles.Selection pressure by the environment.

• Modes of Natural Selection1. Stabilizing2. Directional3. Diversifying4. Sexual

• StabilizingSelection toward the average and against the extremes.Ex: birth weight in humans

• Directional SelectionSelection toward one extreme.Ex: running speeds in race animals.Ex. Galapagos Finch beak size and food source.

• DiversifyingSelection toward both extremes and against the norm.Ex: bill size in birds

• CommentDiversifying Selection - can split a species into several new species if it continues for a long enough period of time and the populations dont interbreed.

• Sexual Mate selectionMay not be adaptive to the environment, but increases reproduction success of the individual.

• ResultSexual dimorphism.Secondary sexual features for attracting mates.

• CommentsFemales may drive sexual selection and dimorphism since they often "choose" the mate.

• QuestionDoes evolution result in perfect organisms?

• Answer - No1. Historical Constraints2. Compromises3. Non-adaptive Evolution (chance)4. Available variations

• SummaryKnow the difference between a species and a population.Know that the unit of evolution is the population and not the individual.

• SummaryKnow the H-W equations and how to use them in calculations.Know the H-W assumptions and what happens if each is violated.

• SummaryIdentify various means to introduce genetic variation into populations.Know the various types of natural selection.