Chapter 23 Facials. 2 Skin Analysis & Consultation Skin Analysis is one of the most important parts of the facial service because it determines what type.

Download Chapter 23 Facials. 2 Skin Analysis & Consultation Skin Analysis is one of the most important parts of the facial service because it determines what type.

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  • Chapter 23Facials

  • 2Skin Analysis & ConsultationSkin Analysis is one of the most important parts of the facial service because it determines what type of skin the client has, the condition of the skin and what type of treatment the clients skin requiresConsultation allows you the opportunity to ask the client questions about their health and skin as well as advise them about the appropriate products and treatments

  • 3Intake FormDuring the consultation a client will fill out an intake form that will ask many health questions that will allow you to identify any contradictionsContradiction is a condition the client has, or a treatment the client is undergoing, that might cause a negative side effect during the facial treatment. Example: a client using Retin-A should not receive any waxing or exfoliation procedures

  • 4Main ContradictionsUse of Accutane, Retin-A, Renova, Tazorac, or Differin NO Waxing, Exfoliating, Peeling or Stimulating treatmentsPregnancy No electrical treatmentsMetal pins or plates No electrical treatmentsPacemakers / Heart Irregularities No electrical treatmentsAllergies always use non-fragranced products for sensitive skinSeizures or Epilepsy No electrical or light treatmentsOral Steroids (Prednisone) No stimulating or exfoliating treatments, No waxingAutoimmune disease (lupus) No stimulating treatmentsDiabetes No services without physicians approval. Diabetics heal very slowlyBlood Thinners No waxing or extractions

  • 5When in doubt DONTA cosmetologist DOES NOT treat skin diseases. However, as a professional, you must be able to recognize the presence of various skin aliments in order to suggest that the client seek medical advice from a physicianAfter a skin analysis and consultation if you have any doubts DO NOT provide the service & refer the client to a physician

  • 6Skin TypeIs determined by how oily or dry the skin isSkin type is hereditarySkin type can not be permanently changed with treatments, although the skin may look considerable better after treatment

  • 7Skin TypesOilyDryNormalCombination DryCombination OilyAcne

  • 8Skin ConditionAre characteristics of the skin associated with a particular skin type

  • 9Skin ConditionsOily open & closed comedones, clogged pores, shiny, thick appearanceDry aka alipidic tight, poreless looking, dehydrated with fine lines and wrinkles, dry and rough to the touchNormal very unusual (most common is combination skin)Combination Dry may have clogged pores in the nose, chin and center of forehead. Dry , poreless towards the outside edges of the faceCombination Oily comedones, clogged pores or obvious pores in the center of the face (T-zone)Acne presence of numerous open and closed comedones, clogged pores, and red papules and pustules

  • 10Skin Conditions ContdHyperpigmentation dark blotches of color, caused by sun exposure or hormone imbalancesTreated with mild exfoliation and home care products that discourage pigmentationDaily use of sunscreen and avoidance of sun exposure are very important for this skin type

  • 11Skin Conditions ContdSensitive skin has a tin, red-pink look and is easily inflamed by some skin care productsAvoid strong products, fragranced products or strong exfoliatesRosacea is chronic hereditary disorder that can be indicated by constant or frequent facial blushing. It is considered a medical disorder and should be diagnosed by a dermatologist. Client should be treated with products specially formulated for rosacea

  • 12Dry SkinOtherwise known as Alipidic lack of lipidsDehydrated skin can be flaky with small fine lines and wrinklesDehydration can be caused from lack of care, over-drying skin care products, sun exposure, lack of water intakeDehydrated skin is treated by using hydrators that help to bind water to the skin surfaceProper hydration will result in smoother-looking and softer skin

  • 13Oily SkinProduces too much sebumWill have large poresSkin may appear shiny or greasyPores may be clogged from dead cells building up in the hair folliclesThere may be open comedones or closed comedones

  • 14Open vs. Closed ComedonesOpen comedones are blackheads, they are a mixture of solidified sebum and dead cell buildup stuck in the folliclesClosed comedones are small bumps just underneath the skin surface

  • 15AcneThe presence of pimples in oily areas indicates acneAcne is a disorder in which the follicles become clogged, resulting in infection of the follicle with redness and inflammationAcne bacteria are anaerobic, which means that they cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. Follicles are blocked with solidified sebum and dead-cell buildup, oxygen cannot readily get to the bottom of the follicle where acne bacteria live.Acne papules are red pimples that do not have a pus headPimples with a pus head are called pustulesPus is a fluid inside a pustule, largely made up of dead white blood cells that tried to fight the infectionCAUTION always wear gloves when performing extractions because acne skin contains infectious matter

  • 16Skin Care ProductsSkin care products are classified into 6 main categories: *Cleansers *Toners *Exfoliants *Treatments *Masks *Moisturizers

  • 17CleansersAre designed to clean the surface of the skin and to remove make-upCleansing Milks are non-foaming lotions. Designed to cleanse dry and sensitive skinFoaming Cleansers contain detergents that cause the product to foam and rinse easily. Designed for combination or oily skin types. Some have antibacterial ingredients for acne-prone skin

  • 18TonersAKA- Freshners or AstringentsHelps close the pores and pH balance the skinSometimes contain ingredients to help remove dead cellsApplied with cotton pads or sprayed onto the face

  • 19ExfoliantsRemove excess dead cells from the skin surface, the skin will look smoother and clearerHelp to clear the skin of clogged pores and can improve the appearance of wrinkles, aging, and hyperpigmentation2 main categories: mechanical chemical

  • 20Mechanical ExfoliantsGranular scrubsGommage roll-off masksMicrodermabrasionSkin brushing

  • 21Chemical ExfoliantEither loosen or dissolve dead cell buildupCan be used for a short time, although some may be worn as a day or night treatmentAlpha Hydroxy or Beta Hydroxy AcidsWrinkles appear less deep, skin discolorations fade, clogged pores are loosened and reduced, and new clogged pores are preventedThese acids encourage cell renewal, resulting in firmer and healthier-looking skinEnzymes peels which dissolve keratin in the surface cells

  • 22Proper exfoliation may improve the appearance of the skin in the following waysReduced clogged and oily skinPromotes skin smoothnessIncreases moisture content and hydrationReduces hyperpigmentationDecreases uneven skin colorEliminates or softens wrinkles and fine linesIncreases elasticitySpeeds up cell turnoverAllows for better penetration of treatment creams and serumsMake-up applies more evenly

  • 23MoisturizersHelp increase the moisture content of the skin surfaceHelp the appearance of fine lines and wrinklesAllows for a smoother make-up applicationProtects the skin from environmental damageMixtures of humectants or water-binding agents and emollients or fatty ingredients that prevent moisture from leaving the skinMoisturizers for oily skin contain significantly less emollientsMoisturizers for dry skin contain more emollients and are often heavier

  • 24SunscreensShield skin from sun exposure Cumulative sun exposure causes the majority of skin cancers, and prematurely ages the skinEvery client should be instructed to use a daily sunscreen. Look for daily moisturizers that contain broad-spectrum sunscreens, which means that they protect against both UVA and UVB sunrays. An SPF-15 or higher is considered to be adequate strength

  • 25TreatmentsSerums or ampoules are concentrated products that generally contain higher amounts of ingredients that have an effect on skin appearance

  • 26MasksProducts that are applied to the skin for a short time, but have more immediate effects

  • Clay Masksused for oily skin, oil absorbing make large pores appear smaller. They may contain sulfur which is an antibacterial ingredient to treat acne-prone skin

  • Cream Masksdo not dry on the skin contain emollients and humectants have a strong moisturizing effect

  • Gel Masks

    for sensitive skin help plump surface cells

  • Alginate Masks

    seaweed based come in a powder formdry to a rubberized texture they create a seal that encourages the skins absorption of serums or creams

  • Paraffin MasksApply over creams or serums the heat allows for a deeper penetration into the surface layers of the skin

  • Modelage MaskContain special crystals of gypsum a plaster like ingredient When mixed with water it creates a chemical reaction where it heats up and hardensThe heat increases blood circulation and is very beneficial for dry skin Not recommended for sensitive skin, oily skin , or blemished skin

  • *MassageIs the manual or mechanical manipulation of the body by rubbing, gently pinching, kneading, tapping, and other movements to increase metabolism and circulation, promote absorption and relieve pain. It also helps to keep the skin healthy and their muscles firm It is important that when you are giving a massage that you use a firm sure touchKeep your hands soft by using creams and lotions. File and shape your nails to avoid scratching your clients skin

  • *Massage ContdThe impact of massage treatment depends on the amount of pressure, the direction of movement, and the duration of each type of manipulation involvedThe direction of movement is always from the insertion to originMassaging a muscle in the wrong direction could result in a loss of resilience and sagging of the skin and muscles

  • *Basic Massage Manipulations EffleurageLight continuous stroking movements applied with the fingers in a slow, rhythmic mannerNo pressure is usedPalms work the large surface, while the cushions of the fingertips work the small surfacesUsed on the forehead, face, scalp, back, shoulder, neck, chest, arms, and hands It has soothing and relaxing effects and should begin and end every massage

  • *Basic Massage Manipulations PetrissageKneading movement performed by lifting, squeezing, and pressing the tissue with a light, firm pressurePetrissage offers deeper stimulation to the muscles, nerves and skin glands and improve circulationUsually limited to the back, shoulders, and armsDigital kneading can also be used on the cheeks with light pinching movements, pressure should be light but firmMovements must be rhythmic and never jerkyFulling is a form of petrissage in which the tissue is grasped, gently lifted, and spread out, used mainly for massaging the arms

  • *Basic Massage Manipulations FrictionDeep rubbing movement in which you apply pressure on the skin with your fingers or palms while moving it over an underlying structureSignificant benefit on the circulation and glandular activity of the skinTypically used on the scalp, arms, and handsChucking, rolling and wringing are variations of friction, and are used mainly to massage the arms and legs

  • *Basic Massage Manipulations TapotementAKA- percussionShort, quick tapping, slapping, and hacking movementsMost stimulating and should be applied with care and discretionTone the muscles and impart a healthy glow to the are being massagedIn facial massage, use only light digital tapping. Bring the fingertips down against the skin in rapid successionHacking is a form of tapotement in which chopping movements are performed with the edges of the hands. Used only to massage the back, shoulders, and arms

  • *Basic Massage Manipulations VibrationRapid shaking of the body part while the balls of the fingertips are pressed firmly on the point of applicationA highly relaxing movement that should be applied at the end of the massageIt increases muscle tone in the muscles of the body

  • * Effects of MassageTo obtain proper results from massage, you must have a thorough knowledge of the structures involved, including muscles, nerves, connective tissues, and blood vessels. Every muscle has a motor point, which is a point on the skin over the muscle where pressure or stimulation will cause contraction of that muscleRelaxation is achieved through light but firm, slow, rhythmic movements, or very slow, light hand vibrations over the motor points for a short time. Another technique is to pause briefly over the motor points, using light pressure

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comMotor Points

  • *Facial ManipulationsThe best manipulations to use on the face are that an even tempo, or rhythm, brings on relaxationDo not remove your hands from the clients face once you have started the manipulationsShould it become necessary to remove your hands, feather them off, then gently replace them with feather-like movements

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comChin MovementLift the chin using a slight pressure

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comLower CheekUsing a circular movement, rotate from chin to ears

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comMouth, nose, & cheekFollow diagram

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comLinear movement over the foreheadSlide fingers to the temples and then stroke up to hairline, gradually moving your hands across the forehead to the right eyebrow

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comCircular movement over the foreheadStarting at the eyebrow line work across the middle of the forehead and then toward the hairline

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comCrisscross MovementStart at one side of the forehead and work back

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comStrokingSlide your fingers towards the center of the forehead and then draw your fingers, with slight pressure, toward the temples and rotate

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comBrow and eye movementPlace your middle fingers at the inner corners of the eyes and your index fingers over the brows. Slide them towards the outer corners of the eyes, under the eyes, and then back to the inner corners

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comNose and upper cheek movement Slide your fingers down the nose. Apply a rotary movement across the cheeks to the temples and rotate gently. Slide your fingers under the eyes and then back to the bridge of the nose

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comMouth and nose movementApply a circular movement from the corners of the mouth up to the sides of the nose. Slide your fingers over the brows and then down to the corners of the mouth up to the sides of the nose. Follow by sliding your fingers over the brows and down to the corners of the mouth again

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comMouth & Nose Movement

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comLip and chin movementFrom the center of the upper lip, draw your fingers around the mouth, going under the lower lip and chin

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comOptional MovementHold the head with your left hand, and draw the fingers of your right hand from under the lower lip and around mouth, moving to the center of the upper lip

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comLifting movement of the cheeksProceed from the mouth to the ears and then from the nose to the top part of the ears

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comRotary Movement of the cheeksMassage from the chin to the ear lobes, from the mouth to the middle of the ears, and from the nose to the top of the ears

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comLight tapping movementWork from the chin to the earlobe, from the mouth to the ear, from the nose to the top of the ear, and then across the forehead. Repeat on the other side

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comStroking movement of the neckApply light upward strokes over the front of the neck. Use heavier pressure on the sides of the neck in downward strokes

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comCircular movement over the neck and chestStarting at the back of the ears, apply a circular movement down the side of the neck, over the shoulders, and across the chest

  • *Male SkinNot all that different from female skinNeeds more attention in the areas of the face where there is hair growthUse downward motions in the area of beard growth

  • Facial Equipment - Magnifying Lampused to analyze skin

  • *Facial Equipment - SteamerHelps to soften the tissue, making it more accepting of moisturizers and other treatment products. Steam also helps to relax and soften follicle accumulations such as comedones and clogged follicles, making them easier to extractPrecautions should be taken with clients who have asthma or other breathing disorders

  • *Facial Equipment Brushing MachineRotating electrical appliance with interchangeable brushes that can be attached to the rotating head. Larger and stiffer brushes are used for back treatmentsSmaller softer brushes are used for the faceform of exfoliationAdministered after steamingA thick layer of cleansing cream should be applied so the brushes will not scratch the faceBrushes must be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected between clients

  • Facial Brushing Machine

  • *Facial Equipment Suction & SprayThe skin suction machine increases circulationspray machine can be used on any type skin to deliver lotions or toners

  • ElectrodesElectrode an applicator for directing the electric current from the machine to the clients skin

    Anode positive electrode usually red or indicated by a + sign

    Cathode negative electrode usually black or indicated by a - sign

  • ElectrotherapyUse of electrical currents to treat the skinGalvanic & High Frequency

  • Desincrustation process of softening and emulsifying hardened sebum stuck in the hair folliclesIontophoresis process of using galvanic current to enable water-soluble products that contain ions to penetrate the skin

  • Galvanic Current forces the product deeper into the follicleCurrent also produces a chemical reaction that helps to loosen the impacted sebum.

  • Microcurrent*Type of galvanic *Best know for helping tone skin & produce a lifting effect for aging skin that lacks elasticity

  • Tesla High Frequencycan be used to stimulate the blood flow and help products penetrateCan be applied after extractions for acne prone skin b/c of its germicidal effectsElectrodes are made of glass and contain various types of gas such as neon, which light up as a color when current is flowing through them

  • Light TherapyUsing light exposure to treat conditions of the skinLED Light Emitting DiodeConcentrated light that flashes very rapidlyRed Light treats aging and rednessBlue Light treats acne-prone skin

  • MicrodermabrasionA type of mechanical exfoliation uses a closed vacuum to shoot aluminum-oxide crystals onto the skin, bumping off cell buildup that is then vacuumed up by a suctionIt is primarily used to treat wrinkles and aging skin

  • Extractions

  • *03/11/2012Free template from www.brainybetty.comFacial TreatmentsFall into two categoriesPreservative maintains the health of the facial skin by cleansing correctly, increasing circulation, relaxing the nerves, and activating the skin glands and metabolism through massageCorrective correct certain facial skin conditions, such as dryness, oiliness, comedones, aging lines, and monor conditions of acne

  • Facial TreatmentsFall into two categoriesPreservative maintains the health of the facial skin by cleansing correctly, increasing circulation, relaxing the nerves, and activating the skin glands and metabolism through massageCorrective correct certain facial skin conditions, such as dryness, oiliness, comedones, aging lines, and monor conditions of acne

  • PreparationSet up your room for client, have all your supplies, bed made, soft music, light candleWash your handsGreet clientConduct consultationShow client to dressing roomAssist client onto the facial tableDrape the clients headWash your handsPlace cotton over their eyes and examine skin under magnifying lamp

  • Apply cotton pads with eye-make remover over the clients eyesUse cotton pad with make-up remover to cleanse clients lipsGently stroke the eyes to remove make-upApply cleanser and use sweeping movements to cleanse the skin in upward motionsRemove cleanserAnalyze skin to determine the rest of the products to be used for facialFacial Procedure

  • Optional eyebrow archingSteam the facePerform extractionsExfoliateRemove exfoliantMassage the face using all facial manipulationsRemove massage creamApply maskRemove maskApply tonerApply specialty serums / eye creamsApply moisturizer

  • Clean Up & SanitationRemove head covering and show client to dressing roomDiscard all disposable suppliesClose product containers tightlyPlace used linens in the hamperSanitize your workstationDisinfect your toolsWash your handsMeet your client and take them to the reception area where you should discuss their home care system, make sure that you provide them with written instructions to take home


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