Chapter 21 Guided Notes - 21 Guided Notes Chapter 21, Section 1: Demand for Civil Rights • After WWII,…

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<ul><li><p>Chapter21GuidedNotes</p><p>Chapter21,Section1:DemandforCivilRights</p><p> AfterWWII,AfricanAmericansbegantopushharderintheCivilRightsMovementandbroughtaboutsignificantresults.</p><p> Needtoknow: Brownv.BoardofEducationofTopeka,KS Montgomerybusboycott Integration</p><p>SettingtheScene</p><p>August1945,____________Ricky,thegeneralmanageroftheBrooklynDodgersaskedJackie____________tojoinhisteam.</p><p> JackieRobinsonbecamethe____________AfricanAmericantoplayinMajorLeagueBaseball. Heplayedforthe____________Dodgers. RobinsonpavedthewayforotherAfricanAmericanstofollowhiminto____________sports.</p><p>AfterWWII,millionsofpeopleintheUSbelievedthetimehadcometo____________allbetreatedequally.</p><p> Aidedby:o AfricanAmericanmigrationtothecitieso ____________o ____________</p><p> Duringthe1950sAfricanAmericansbegantofightagainstJimCrowlawsinan____________manner.</p><p>Brownv.BoardofEducationofTopeka,KS</p><p> In1951,OliverBrownsuedtheTopeka,Kansas,BoardofEducationtoallowhis____________toattendanearbyschoolthatwasfor____________only.</p><p> Inaunanimousdecision,theSupremeCourtdeclaredthattheseparatebutequaldoctrinewas____________andcouldnotbeappliedto____________education.</p><p>ReactiontoBrownv.BoardofEducation</p><p>o Thiswasamajor____________forCivilRights.o AfricanAmericansandmanywhiteAmericans____________theruling.o Thedecisionwasstrongly____________inthe____________andschoolsremainedsegregated.</p><p> ManyintheSouthreactedwithfearand____________resistance. TheKuKluxKlanbecamemoreactivethreateningthosewhospokeinfavoroftheBrowndecision. Morethan90membersofCongressexpressedtheiroppositioninthe________________________ CongressmanfelttheSupremeCourthad____________theirbounds. Theyfelttherewasno____________basisfortheaction.</p></li><li><p> Theybelieveddesegregationwouldleadto____________andchaosinseveralsouthernstates.</p><p>TheLittleRock9</p><p> In1957,nineblackstudentsmetintenseoppositionwhentheytriedto____________atCentralHighSchoolinLittleRockArkansas.</p><p> Outsidetheschool,mobsofangryprotestersgatheredtopreventthe____________oftheblackstudents. Studentswereyelledat,____________on,pushed,and____________. PresidentEisenhowercalledinover10,000nationalguardsmentoescortand____________thestudents. Thestudentsbecamean____________toothers. Desegregationofschools____________spreadthroughoutthesouth.</p><p>MontgomeryBusBoycott</p><p> In1955,RosaParksandthecityofMontgomery,Alabamawerethecenterofthenationsattention. InDecember,RosaParkstookanappropriateseatinthemiddleofthebus.</p><p>o However,sherefusedtogiveupherseattoa____________passenger.o Shewasarrestedandorderedtostandtrialfor____________thesegregationlaws.</p><p> BoycottwasledbyJoAnnRobinsonheadoftheWomensPoliticalCouncil,printedandcirculatedleafletsthroughoutMontgomery'sblackcommunitycallingfora____________.</p><p> TheplancalledforAfricanAmericanstorefusetousetheentirebussystemuntilthebuscompanyagreedtochangeits____________policy.</p><p> In1956,theSupremeCourtruledthatbussegregation,likeschoolsegregation,was____________.</p><p>Chapter21,Section2:LeadersandStrategies</p><p> TheCivilRightsMovementofthe1960sconsistedofmanygroupsandleaders. Whiletheirmethodsdiffered,theallhadthesamegoalofworkingforequalrightsforallAmericans. NeedtoKnow:</p><p>o Interracialo COREo SCLCo Nonviolentprotestso SNCC</p><p>LayingtheGroundwork</p><p> TheCivilRightsMovementofthe1950sand1960sweretheeffortsof____________peopledeterminedtoendracialinjusticeintheUnitedStates.</p><p> Therewasno____________organizationdirectingthemovement,butseveralmajorgroupsformedtocoordinatecivilrightsactivities.</p><p> Eachgrouphadtheirown____________andwaysofoperating,butallwerecommittedtoworkingtowardcivilrightsforallAmericans.</p><p>NationalAssociationfortheAdvancementofColoredPeople(NAACP)</p><p> Groupwasformedasan____________organization. NAACPfocusedonchallenging____________thatpreventedAfricanAmericansfromreceivingtheircivilrights. FoughtagainstviolenceintheSouththroughanti____________laws.</p></li><li><p> Foughtagainstsegregationlaws. MainlyeducatedAfricanAmericansand____________WhiteAmerican.</p><p>NationalUrbanLeague</p><p> LeaguesoughttohelpAfricanAmericansmovingtomajorAmerican____________.o Helpedtofindthem____________andjobs.o Helpedthemlearn____________foradvancement.</p><p>CongressofRacialEquality(CORE)</p><p> Dedicatedtobringingaboutchangethrough____________methods. Alsoaninterracialgroup. AfterWWII,COREorganizeddemonstrationsagainstsegregation. Playeda____________roleintheCivilRightsMovementofthe1950sand1960s.</p><p>MartinLutherKing,Jr.</p><p> MartinLutherKingJr.,soonbecamethe____________fortheprotestmovement. Attheageof26hewaselectedpresidentoftheSouthernChristianLeadershipConference(____________). HewasaleaderoftheCivilRightsMovementanda____________ofnonviolentprotests. Hereceivedthe____________PeacePrizein1964.</p><p>SouthernChristianLeadershipConference(SCLC)</p><p> SCLCwasstartedin1957byMartinLutherKing,Jr.andotherAfricanAmericanclergyman.o Theyadvocatedthepracticeof____________protest.o Protestersdonot____________evenwhen____________byopponentso MovedthestrugglefromtheNorthtotheSouth.</p><p>StudentNonviolentCoordinatingCommittee(SNCC)</p><p> StartedasastudentorganizationbyEllaBakertogiveyoungpeopleamoreactiveroleintheCivilRightsMovement.</p><p>o 200studentsshowedupforthefirstmeeting.o Mostwerefrom____________communities.</p><p> SNCCvotedtoremainaseparategroupfromSCLCandCORE.</p><p>RobertMoses</p><p>OneofSNCCsmostinfluentialleaders</p><p> HelpedruralblacksinMississippito____________tovote. Moseswassoftspoken,butlovedandtrustedasanordinaryman. SNCCbecameastrongorganizationfor____________tobeactivelyinvolvedintheCivilRightsMovement.</p><p>Chapter21,Section3:TheStruggleIntensifies</p><p> Thetacticsofnonviolentprotest,includingsitinsandboycotts,challengedsegregationandbroughtchange,butalsogeneratedviolentconfrontations.</p></li><li><p> Needtoknow: Sitin FreedomRides Birmingham,AL</p><p>Sitins</p><p> StartedbyfourstudentsfromAgriculturalTechCollegeinNorthCarolina.o Theywere____________withtheslowpaceofintegration.o Itwasapeacefuldemonstrationthatbecameacoretacticofcivilrightsworkers.</p><p> Asitinisagroupofprotesterswhosatdownatasegregatedlunchcounterorotherpublicplace.o Iftheywere____________serviceatfirst,they____________wheretheywere.</p><p> Sitinsbecameaverypopularformofprotestintheearly1960s.o Thesitinsoftenworkedbecauseit____________businessownerstodecidebetweenservingthe</p><p>protestersorriskinga____________andlossofbusiness.</p><p>TheFreedomRides</p><p> Therewassomeintegrationinareasinthesouth,butmanystatesrefusedtodesegregatethebuses. In1961(CORE)CongressofRacialEqualitysentFreedomRidersfromWashingtonD.C.toNewOrleansasa</p><p>protest.o ____________Rides:designedtotestwhethersouthernstateswouldobeytheSupremeCourtruling</p><p>andallowAfricanAmericanstoexercisetheirrights. Thirteenfreedomriders,bothAfricanAmericansandwhiteAmericans,boardedtwointerstatebusesheading</p><p>south.o InAlabama,abuswas____________,andtheriderswereforcedofftheburningbusintoamobof</p><p>whiteswhobrutallybeattheriders. Bombingsandbeatingsbecame____________beforefederaltroopsweresentintoprotecttheriders,in</p><p>essencesupportingintegration.o Manywerearrestedbutlaughedandsangastheyservedtheir15dayjailsentence.o PhotosandfilmofthetreatmentoftheFreedomRiders____________Americans.o Kennedyeventually____________theInterstateCommerceCommissiontoissuearulingthat</p><p>prohibitedsegregationinallinterstatetransportationincludingtrains,planes,andbuses.</p><p>IntegrationofOleMiss</p><p> JamesMeredithwasanAirForcevetandastudentatJacksonSt.College.o HewantedtotransfertotheUniv.ofMississippi,OleMiss,anall____________school.o Hewasrejectedandfiledalawsuitclaiminghewasdeniedon____________grounds.o Theissuebecamea____________offbetweentheGovernorandtheJusticeDept.o PresidentKennedysentfederalmarshalsto____________Meredithtothecampus.o Crowdsofangryprotestershadgatheredandviolenceeruptedinwhich2bystanderswerekilled,and</p><p>hundredshurt.o Kennedysent____________troopstorestoreorder.</p><p>ClashinBirmingham,AL</p><p> MLKJr.plannedamassivedemonstrationinBirmingham,Alabama.</p></li><li><p>o Birminghamwaschosenbecauseitwasknownforbeing____________segregatedwithastubbornpolicechief,Eugene____________Connor.</p><p>o MLKJr.hopedConnorwouldcallforattacksonthedemonstrators,andthatthefederalgovernmentwouldhavetostepinand____________civilrights.</p><p>o Thedemonstrationsstartedwithsitins,andthingsgot____________dayslaterwhenmarcherswerearrested.</p><p>o MLKJr.calledformoremarchesandwas____________himself.o Asadultswereputintojail,anewgroupofprotesterssteppedup,____________ages616.</p><p> Over____________childrenwenttojailincludingelementarychildren.o ThejailsbecameovercrowdedsoBullConnororderedthemarcherstobe____________withhigh</p><p>poweredfirehoses,strongenoughtotakethe____________offoftreesfromhundredsoffeetaway. Childrenwerepushedtothegroundandrolleddownthestreetbytheforceofthehoses.Some</p><p>werehospitalizedwithmassive____________andbruises.o Americanswere____________whentheysawtheeventsonT.V.</p><p> PresidentKennedysentpeopletonegotiatetheintegrationofBirminghamandanagreementwasreached.</p><p> ____________continuedinBirminghamevenaftertheagreement.</p><p>The4ChildrenKilledintheChurchBombing</p><p> AbombwasplantedinaBaptistchurchby____________membersthatwentoffjustasSundayschoolwasendingandkilled4girls.</p><p>o Thissparkedotherviolenceinthecity,where2AfricanAmericanswereshotandkilled.</p><p>Chapter21,Section4:ThePoliticalResponse</p><p> Continuouscivilrightsprotestsinthe1960sgraduallymadepoliticiansrespondtopublicopinionandmoveforwardwithstrongcivilrightslegislation.</p><p> Needtoknow: MarchonWashington CivilRightsActof1964 Filibuster VotingRightsActof1965 Cloture 24thAmendment</p><p>SettingtheScene</p><p> October1960,MartinLutherKing,Jr.wasarrestedinGeorgiaandsentencedto____________monthsofhardlabor.Hisfamilyfearedforhislife.</p><p> JohnF.KennedycalledMrs.Kingtoreassureher.RobertKennedy____________thestateofGeorgiatoreleaseDr.Kingonbail.</p><p> TheKennedysactionswasknowntotheAfricanAmericancommunityandmany____________theirvote. ManyAfricanAmericansswitchedtheirvotefrom____________to____________switchhelpedhimwinthe</p><p>Presidency.</p><p>KennedyonCivilRights</p></li><li><p> KennedywasasenatorfromMassachusettswhohadalwayssupportedcivilrights,butnot____________theissue.</p><p> DuringhisPresidentialKennedywonmanyAfricanAmericanvoteswithhis____________statements. OncehebecamePresidenthemoved____________oncivilrightsissuesbecausehedidntwanttoanger</p><p>southernsenatorswhosevotesheneededforotherissues. Butastheviolenceincreasedhewasdeeplydisturbedbythescenesandcouldnolonger____________the</p><p>issue. Hepromisedandstartedonabilltoend____________.</p><p>TheMarchonWashington</p><p> CivilRightsgroupslikeSCLC,NAACP,SNCC,andCOREpressuredPresidentKennedytopasscivilrightslaws. Kennedydidsubmitbillstocongress,buttheywerestalledby____________Congressmen. MartinLutherKing,Jr.andotherswantedthemarchtospeeduptheprocess. InAugust,over250,000marchersfromacrossthenationtocallforjobsandfreedom,theofficialsloganofthe</p><p>march. MartinLutherKing,Jr.deliveredhisfamous____________________________________speech.</p><p>TheCivilRightsActof1964</p><p> ThreemonthsaftertheMarchonWashington,Pres.Kennedywas____________. VicepresidentLyndonJohnsonworkedtobuildsupportforthebillstartedbyKennedy,andwouldacceptno</p><p>compromiseoncivilrights. InJuneof1964,thebillwaspassed.</p><p>o TitleIBannedtheuseofdifferentvoter____________standardsforblacksandwhites.o TitleIIProhibiteddiscriminationin____________placessuchasrestaurants,gasstations,theaters</p><p>andsportsarenas.o TitleVIallowedthe____________offundstoprogramsthatpracticediscrimination.o TitleVIIBanneddiscriminationonthebasisofrace,sex,orreligionbyemployersandunions.</p><p>FreedomSummer</p><p> CivilRightsleadersorganizedamajor____________registrationdrive. Abouta1000AfricanAmericansandwhitevolunteers,mostlycollegestudents,wentintoMississippiinthe</p><p>summerof1964totryandgetAfricanAmericansto____________tovote. TheKKKledralliestotryand____________thevolunteers.Throughoutthesummerabout80mobattackswere</p><p>reported.Volunteerswerebeatenup,shotatandarrested. Threeyoungcivilrightsworkerswerereportedmissing(JamesChaney,AndrewGoodman,andMichael</p><p>Schwerner).TheFBIlaterfoundthe____________inanearthendam. AfricanAmericanhomeswere____________orfirebombed.</p><p>SelmaMarch</p><p> MLKandothersorganizedamarchfromSelma,AlabamatothecapitolofMontgomeryprotestthe____________ofvotingrightstoAfricanAmericans.</p><p> Manyblackshadnotevenregisteredduetofearofviolence;otherswerearrestedforstandinginlinetoregister.</p><p> Marchersweremetby____________statetroopersonhorsebackwhochargedintothemarchwithwhips,clubsandteargas.</p></li><li><p> Thenationwas____________astheywatchedontheTVnews. PresidentJohnsonputtheAlabamaNationalGuardunderfederalcontrolandorderedthemtoprotectthe</p><p>marchers. Whenthemarchtookplaceagain,theyhadsupportersfromalloverthecountryandnumbersreachedasmany</p><p>as____________.</p><p>TheVotingRightsActof1965</p><p> InreactiontotheSelmamarch,PresidentJohnsonwentonnationalTVandpromisedalawto____________votingrights.</p><p> Thenheraisedhisarmsandsaid________________________________________________! Theacteliminated____________testsandother____________. Thenextyearover____________AfricanAmericansregisteredtovoteinthedeepsouth.</p><p>24thAmendment</p><p> WiththeCivilRightsActof64andtheVotingRightsActof65,moreAfricanAmericanswouldbe____________tovote.</p><p> Thepassageofthe24thAmendmenteliminatedthe____________tax,whichwasstillbeingusedinsomesouthernstates.</p><p> Thepolltaxwasusedtokeep____________AfricanAmericansfromvoting.</p><p>Chapter21,Section5:TheMovementTakesANewTurn</p><p> GainsincivilrightscamesoslowlythatsomeAfricanAmericansrejectednonviolenceandcalledformoreradicalaction.</p><p> Increasesinsocialunrestculminatedin1968withtheassassinationsofMartinLutherKing,Jr.andRobertF.Kennedy.</p><p> Needtoknow:o NationofIslamo dejuresegregationo blacknationalismo defactosegregationo blackpower </p><p>MalcolmX</p><p>o Outsidethe____________civilrightsmovement,moreradical,militantpoliticalleadersemerged.o MalcolmwasbornMalcolmLittleinOmahaNE,butgrewupinthe____________ofDetroit,BostonandNew</p><p>York.o Hefellintoalifeofcrimeandwasjailedfor7yrs.forburglary.o WhileinjailhejoinedtheNationofIslam.</p><p>o Agroupthatpreachedblack____________andselfhelp.o Releasedin1952MalcolmLittlechangedhisnametoMalcolm____________becausehesaidLittlehadcome</p><p>fromslaveowners.o MalcolmbecameaministerfortheNationofIslamandwonmanyfollowerswithhis____________speeches.o HespreadtheideaofBlackNationalism,orthe____________ofthe____________.</p><p>NationofIslam</p></li><li><p>o TheleaderoftheNationofIslamwas____________Muhammad.o Hetaughtthat____________(theMuslimnameforGod)wouldbringablacknation.o Oneofthekeyswasknowingonesenemies,accordingtoMuhammad,theenemytotheNationofIslamwas</p><p>the____________society.o MalcolmXdisagreedwiththetacticsandthegoalsofthenonviolentprotestsofthecivilrightsmovement.o MalcolmXandElijahMuhammadcameto____________onmanythingsandMalcolmlefttheNationofIslam</p><p>tostarthisownorganizationcalledtheMuslimMosque,Inc.o MalcolmmadeapilgrimagetoMecca,theholycityofIslaminSaudiArabiawherehesawmillionsofMuslimsof</p><p>____________________________________worshipingtogether.o This____________his____________ofseparatismandhatredofwhitepeople.o Uponhisreturn,hewasreadytoworkwithcivilrightsleadersandevenwhiteson____________issues.</p><p>Assassination</p><p>o Tosome,Malcolmhadbecomea____________.o Feb21,1965.MalcolmXis____________whilegivingaspeechinNewYork.o ControversyswirlsaroundtheMalcolmXassassinationtothisday.</p><p>TheBlackPowerMovement</p><p>o StokelyCarmichael:SNCCleader,inspiredbyMalcolmX.o CalledforSNCCworkerstocarry____________andwantedthegrouptobeblackonlyandrejectwhite</p><p>activists.o Therewasasplitoccurringinthemo...</p></li></ul>

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