Chapter 20 Agro - environmental management and practice

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Chapter 20 Agro - environmental management and practice. Main content. 20.1 Agricultural ecological environmental problems and its harm 20.2 Agro - environmental management and practice 20.3 Ecological agriculture 20.4 Modern intensive sustainable agriculture 20.5 Case study . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Chapter 20 Agro - environmental management and practice

  • Main content20.1 Agricultural ecological environmental problems and its harm 20.2 Agro - environmental management and practice 20.3 Ecological agriculture 20.4 Modern intensive sustainable agriculture 20.5 Case study

  • 20.1 Agricultural ecological environmental problems and its harm 20.1.1 Environmental problems of agricultural production

    Figure 20-1 Schematic diagram of common agricultural environmental problems and its harm

  • 1 Pesticide pollution Migration, proliferation, residues, aggregation behavior will pollute the atmosphere, water and soil and is harmful to the organisms The organisms accumulate gradually in vivo by the food chain,which make the top of the food chain organisms (including humans) with higher pesticide content in vivoIt makes ecosystems lose their balance, cause the systems structure variation and function decline, and loss biodiversity.

  • Figure 20-2 The cycle of pesticide in the environment Li and Fleck, 1972

  • Organochlorine pesticides Chlorinated aromatic derivatives,including BHC, Dieldrin,and DDT etc.Stable structure,difficult to be oxidized, difficult to be dissociated ,high toxic, easy to be dissociated in organic solvents, particularly in adipose tissue, and is high efficient, high toxic,and high pesticide residueIt accumulates in the organisms fat and liver by the food chain in a large number, harms the nerve center,casues liver enzyme changing, has pathological changes by violating the kidney, and the toxicity is difficult to degrade.It has been forbidden to use since 1983, but the accumulation of pesticides in the past, will continue to play a role in quite a long time

  • Organophosphorus pesticide Most containing phosphorus organic compounds are phosphate or amides, such as DDVP, 1605, malathion and kitazine etc.Highly toxic, easy to break down,the time of residue in the environment is short,not easy to accumulate in plants and animals,so it is often considered safe pesticidesBut its high toxicity to humans and animals,it can inhibit the acetylcholine esterase, lipase and serine proteases aliphatic in the body to disrupt normal nerve function, causing disorders of biochemical processes in vivo with the symptoms as vomiting, diarrhea, fecal incontinence and blood pressure rising, eventually leading to death. Therefore, its environment toxicity still can not be ignored.

  • Carbamate pesticides

    With phenyl-N-alkyl esters structure, the same as organic phosphorus pesticides,they all have a role in anti-cholinesterase, the same in poisoning symptoms, but there are differences in the mechanism It is easy to decompose in the natural environment, and can be metabolized rapidly in vivo. Usually the metabolites have more toxicity than their own, and are low-residue pesticides.Some species have acute toxicity, such as furadan, its oral LD50 is 8-14mg/Kg,and it is a high toxic pesticideThis kind of pesticides may have the potential to cause carcinoma and teratogenesis.

  • 2 Fertilizer pollution It play a considerable role in agricultural production, but if applying improperly it may be seriously cause the impact and harm to the soil, air, water, agricultural products, and the whole ecosystem.Ecosystem pollution is a multi-media environment pollution and contaminants in various environment media have physical, chemical and biological processes.So the pollutants in multi-media environment demonstrate relevance, transferability and cycle. figure 20-3)

  • Figure 20-3 Migration transformation rule of chemical fertilizer nutrient element in the environment

  • Nitrogen fertilizer pollution Figure 20-4 Nitrogen fertilizer pollution brings environmental problems

  • Phosphate fertilizer pollutionPhosphate fertilizer is not to be volatiled and weted.It has less effect to the atmospheric and ground water. However,it usually contains a variety of heavy metal and has potential impact to the soil and crops.In our phosphate rock, the amount of its fluoride containing is basically proportional to the phosphate containing, resulting increasing the fluoride content in the soilPhosphate fertilizer also contains trace amounts of natural radioactive elements. Especially in surrounding of the phosphate rock, there is a potential danger of radioactive pollution,and it is also polluting the environment in production process, transportation, and the trial process.

  • Potassium fertilizer and microelement fertilizer pollutionWith the development of agricultural production, potash fertilizer and trace fertilizer are used widely. But if it is used improperly,it may still harm to the environmentIt may easy to destroy soil structure resulting in soil compaction,if improper use of potassium sulfate;It may accumulate the chloride ion in the soil, destroy soil structure, and reduce the quality and yield of some crops ,if potassium chloride is used improperly.Excessive trace elements could easily pollute the soil poisoning the crops, affecting the yield and quality

  • 3 Poultry excrement pollutionLarge -scale livestock breeding base takes great pollution to the environmentAccording to the statistics,the amount of livestock manure is more than 2.5 billion ton in China in year 2000,and is much more than the total national industrial solid wasterTake a sample of the Hangzhou Bay,which has the most pollution in Yangtze River region. Its pollution is mainly caused by agricultural pollution,especially pesticides, fertilizers and poultry excrement pollution.Research shows that poultry excrement is the main renson which causing the pollution indicators of Hangzhou Bay exceeding the standard seriously.(see table20-1) At the same time, the pollution proportion is trending to increase(see table 20-2).

  • Table 20-1 The proportion of main sources of pollution indicators of Hangzhou Bay in year 1994unit %Notesquoted from Yang Chaofei2001

  • Table 20-2 The proportion of main sources of pollution indicators of Hangzhou Bay in year 2013 unit %Notesquoted from Yang Chaofei2001

  • The reason of why the faeces cause the pollution is that it has high concentrations of pollutants,and also contains large amounts of protein nitrogen, albuminoid nitrogen ,ammonia nitrogen and many phosphorus and a large number of pathogens (see table 20-3) When the faeces was directly discharged into the environment without treatment,it may :Pollute the soil and groundwaterPollute the surface water, even the drinking water and endangering human healthStench pollution of the livestocks faeces

  • Table 20-3 Physical and chemical properties of livestock wastes Notesquoted from Chen Weixin1993

  • 4 Biological pollution

    Biology invasion The harm caused by biology invasion to the agricultural ecological environment and natural resources damage is irreversible,and it accelerates biodiversity loss and species extinctionOnce the success alien species invasion, it will be very difficult to eradicate, and it will be expensive to control the damage.The direct economy loss caused by biological invasion is 122.6 billion U.S. dollars annually in America.The economy loss caused by several main invasive species is 54.7 billion Yuan per year,in China

  • Transgenic organism As unnatural evolution products, it has been widely disputed for its potential impact in human health and ecological environment safety since the success of recombinant DNA technology.Some experts believe that transgene crops or its wild relatives species can be changed to "super" weeds; may cause gene escape, resulting in "super virus"; danger to biological diversity; may adversely affect to human health

  • 20.1.2 Agro-ecosystems damage 1 The reduction of biodiversityOn one hand ,agricultural production activities such as farming, the use of pesticide and fertilizer and plant and animal genetic improvement in agriculture improves the productivity ,on the other hand it also impacts the biological diversity in agricultural ecosystems. Figure 20-5 shows the components and functions of biological diversity in agricultural ecosystems

  • Figure 20-5 Component and function of biodiversity in agro-ecosystemsNotesquoted from Chenxin,etc 2002

  • 2 Soil degradation It is a phenomena and process,which the soil environment quality and carrying ability decline rapidly caused by humans improper development and utilization in natural environment. In the early stage of reclamation soil, it only destroys the balance of the natural vegetation and fertility of the soil and the vegetation can also be restored by abandonment of cultivated land and the fertility can be restored by use organic manure.But overuse of soil may cause the soil erosion, desertification, salinization, swampiness and soil fertility decline and other soil degradation phenomenon . Figure 20-6 is the classification of soil degradation

  • Figure 20-6 Classification pattern of soil degradation quoted from Li Tianjie1995

  • 20.2 Agro - environmental management and practice 20.2.1 Agricultural environmental management system Agricultural environmental management agency Our national first-level environment division is EnvironmentProtection Energy department of agriculture ministry.MeanwhileAgriculture Ministry sets up Environment Protection Committeeto organize and coordinate environmental protection work in various sectors of agriculture.The corresponding environmentmanagement institution has also been set up in the agriculturalsector of each province, autonomous region and municipality.

  • (2) Agricultural environmental management object Figure 20-7 Agricultural environmental management object

  • 20.2.2 Agricultural environmental management approach Figure 20-8 The classification of agricultural environmental management measures

  • 20.2.3 Agricultural environmental management policy(1) Environment management in the constructing process in small towns industrialization makes agriculture lose the resources in process of urbanization land occupationthe loss of high-quality workforcethe of resources

  • The environment problem in small town construction Table 20-4 The environment problem in small town construction

  • Environment measures to small towns constructionAdhere to balance the construction and ecological protection, enlarge environment planning for the small townAdhere to innovate in Intermediated Financing pluralistic system, enlarge investment in small-town environment protectionAdhere to the sustainable development strategy, enlarge the ecological environment construction of small town

  • 2 Reform of agricultural production mode Agricultural industrialization is the new reform of agricultural production mode

    figure 20-9 The agricultural production mode change meaning to the environment

  • 20.3 Ecological agriculture 20.3.1 Basic principles of Chinese eco-agriculture construction20.3.2 Technology type of ecological agricultureFigure 20-10 Mulberry-Dyke-Fish-PondSchematic diagram of water and land exchange production systemsquoted from the State Environmental Protection Administration Chinese Eco-Agriculture 1991

  • 20.3.3 Typical technology and environmental protection1 Main techniques and environment effects of material cycles in ecological agriculture systemFigure20-11 Main practical technology and environmental benefits

  • 2 In-system matter cycle processFigure 20-12 Cycle model of Guquan ecological farm quoted from the State Environmental Protection Administration 1991

  • 3 Ecological agricultural system and environment of circular use of materials Biogas is central link of system energy conversion, material recycling and comprehensive utilization of organic fertilizers, is the tie combining the primary producers, primary consumers and decomposers As the figure 20-13a,the energy substance is not fully used and just used a part of it in the agricultural cycle without biogas. The cycle becomes perfect and improves the utilization of energy substance after using the biogas (see figure 20-13b).It reduces the harm to the resource environment and is conducive to agricultural environment protection

  • The traditional agricultural circulation incomplete circulation Virtuous circle of ecological agriculture systemFigure 20-13 Comparison figure of two agricultural circulation

  • 4 Ecological agricultural system energy analysis of circular use of materialsThe energy input of natural ecosystem is maily the solar energy.But the energy inputs of artificial ecosystem are with many additional energy beside the solar energy which is named as artificial energy Agro-ecosystem is an artificial ecosystem,it can determine whether high yield and stability, and can find the problem in certain places and certain aspects to adopt effective measures by the analysis of energy input-output.

  • Figure 20-14 Input/output of material circular ecological agriculture system energy

  • 20.4 Modern intensive sustainable agriculture 20.4.1 The concept and aim of modern intensive sustainable agriculture Definition: an acceptable mode of agricultural production operation which adopts the base methods to maintain the natural resource, ensures the people of present and future generations to meet the demand for agricultural products by technology and mechanisms transform , maintains the land, water, plant and animal genetic resources,and will not cause environment degradation.Its technology is appropriate,and also feasible in economy point. Aim Resource intensivism Production modernization Management industrialization

  • 20.5 Case study The construction of Dazu eco-agriculture demonstration zones

    Dazu County locates in southeast of Sichuan Basin,and west of Chongqing City Survey and zoning work of agricultural resources have been taking in Dazu County from 1980 -1982 ,and there were serious problems in agriculture ecological environment: the forest cover reduces to 320,000 mu in 1987 from the 1190,000 mu in early 1950s ,and the soil erosion is serious, the loss area achieving 40.2% of the whole county covers area.In view of this serious situation, " the overall planning of eco-agriculture for south-north Mountain of Dazu County,."was completed in May 1984

  • Figure 20-15 Geographical diagram of Dazu(map of Chongqing)

  • Figure 20-16 The content of ecological agriculture construction in Dazu

  • (1) Ecological benefits analysis The ecological benefits analysis of rice-fish culture model Use of resources have been improved Improve the soil fertility and save the amount of fertilizer Beneficial to inhibit weed and pests, reducing the use of pesticide

  • Figure 20-17 Material cycle and energy conversion brief chart of fishing in paddy field

  • Analysis on biogas ecological project Dazu county is an agricultural county, and the straw output of rice, wheat, corn, beans, sorghum and other crops is much.The annual output of straw is 355,300 tons. It can produce 71 million m3 biogas if fully used the straw as raw material

  • Figure 20-5 Analysis on typical model

    Samples of modelFinancial analysisEnvironment Economy analysis The main problem of effecting the promotionPolicy focusRice-fish cultureexcellentexcellentWhether the financial benefits can be achieved smoothly ,it mainly depends on whether the output and price of fish is stableMaintain the financial benefits of the farmersBiogas engineeringJust so so excellentOne-time investment is too large and it needs operating cost. Farmerss direct financial benefit is not highexternal benefits from the society to the farmers Grain for Green ProjectPoor excellentIt requires considerable material and labor, and financial gain is difficult to implement in a short term Encourage and guide the farmers to adjust mode of operation

  • Thank you !

    Agriculture environment problem environmental problems of agricultural production pesticide pollution Organochlorine pesticides Organophosphorus pesticide Carbamate pesticide pyrethroid pesticides sludge pollution waste pollution Garbage pollution N Fertilizer pollution phosphate fertilizer potassium fertilizer pollution micronutrient fertilizer pollution Livestock feces pollution Feces itself or decomposition products Pathogen pollution Biological pollution Bacteria, viruses pollution Biological invasion Transgenic organism Agricultural ecosystem damage Soil degradation Soil erosion Land salinization Soil desertification Biodiversity down sharply

    pesticides spray granules tablet fumigants drift volatile injected into the tablet Volatile, evaporation intercepted atmosphere Direct landing Degradation loss irrigation loss diffusion Inject into soil Industrial sewage Aquatic animals absorption excretion absorption desorption water sediments Decay secretion adsorption absorption irrigation plants Erosion erosion filtration plants Decay secretion absorption soil mobile excretion absorption Soil organisms groundwater Degradation loss output Harvest crops Degradation loss

    atmosphere volatile Biological nitrogen fixation The electrochemical and optical chemical nitrogen fixation livestock product crops Industrial nitrogen fixation waste ammonia fertilizer Phosphate rock phosphate fertilizer Enrichment transformation plant in vivoLeaves twigs Volatile denitrifying Heavy metal pollution Absorption denitrifying absorption Soil harden, salinization Salt accumulating leaching absorption Physical reaction Chemical reaction Biological reaction absorption Bacteria and fungi decomposition Soluble ion, such as nitrate, nitrite migration leaching Flush into surface runoff Fish die eutrophication Algal blooms Groundwater pollution

    N2N2ONO3Damage of atmospheric ozone Denitrificationform N2, N2O have harm to people and animalsCausing the accumulation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen used in abundance in long-term Soil properties change (such as soil harden, salinization, etc.) Nitrification, form NO3 leaching Groundwater pollution and eutrophication

    Agricultural ecosystem biodiversity composition Pollination biology Predators and parasitic Plant-eatingearthworms Non-crop vegetation Soil medium animals Soil small animals function promote pollination, gene exchanges Population regulation, biological control The food chain and nutrient cycling Competition, parasitoid protection, wild relatives of crops The soil structure and nutrient cycling Decomposition, hunting and nutrient cycling Diseases control

    Soil degradation non-agricultural occupy and destruction of farmland soil Occupy Damage Deterioration of soil propertiesSoil erosionSoil soil erosion Soil desertification, desertification and rocky institutionalized Excessive cultivation Soil impoverishment soil harden Soil acidification, salinization, dive nurturing environmental pollutionSoil pesticide pollution Soil heavy metal pollution Soil radioactive pollution

    Agricultural environmental management object The crowd (organized by household, village or a certain relationship) Agricultural product factor management Land management Labor management agricultural machinery management Material management Agricultural technology and quality management Agricultural production department management production management of planting production management of livestockproduction management of agricultural products processingRural service organization management Sales management Funds and the cost management

    Agricultural environmental management measures Economic means Agricultural environmental economic policies Pollution charges and overweight fines system Incentive system Non-economic means Administrative means Legal management means Technology management means Environmental education means extensive at the cost of sacrifice the resources and environment, high investment, high consumption, low output, low efficiency, low ratio of output value and production cost, such as oil agriculture Agricultural production mode change of direction intensive requirements innovation of agricultural technologicalinnovation of agricultural system, formsAppear a series of new production methods, such as ecological agriculture, organic agriculture, intensive sustainable agriculture, etc agricultural industrialization Form scale operation for the implementation of environmental protection policy improved the agricultural comparative efficiency increase invest capital of environmental prevention and control benign circulation of various industriesPromoting benign circulation of agricultural ecosystem

    solar Mulberry fields silkworm cocoon silk mill output Silkworm yarn clastic pupa Food processing liquid output Fish ponds sediment digester Slag liquid

    the main technology of systemBiogas fermentation technology the central link of material and energy utilization The engineering of food chain structureUsing the ecology principle to get the product that human needBio-control technology Reduce the dosage of pesticides, it is favorable to the environment protection According to the specific circumstances to use the techniqueThe technology that not only make the economic benefits and but also nondestructive environment

    FWFPMfishpond Water surface feces duckeryMarshy water Some energy feces pig pig Produce marshy water Chicken manure Life energy digester Heating energy Chicken manure chicken Plant residues produce Produce marshy water Chicken manure feed Chicken manure feces orchard the low-rise space Fat soil Earthworms breeding The fungus bed waste Mushroom room

    solar fuel crops seeds fertilizer Human food Livestock feed Using ecological agriculture technology solar crops Human food Livestock feed Crops straw power Biogas fermentation methane fermentations waste fuel

    electricity coal machinery fertilizer pesticide feed solar planting people feedingbiogas Straw fermentation can product energy feces biogas water and biogas residue feces digester breathing fish meat eggs milk food vegetables fruit grass

    100013000312--------------Construction of ecological agriculture Converting cropland to forest 1000 mu, build up river and forest belt 13,000 meters, four-side tree 312 millionAccording to the principle of ecological engineering to established six types of ecological households Developing small fruit, such as building a vineyard Use grassplot and slopes to develop the stockbreedingdeveloping processing, build up all kinds of processing factoriesProcessing - breeding - biogas - earthworms - planting type Fruit - grass - grazingBuckwheat - Shrub - grassFood - bacteria - pig - biogas Rice - mulberry - fish symbiotic type Rice - fish symbiotic type

    solar output rice plankton Stirring oxygen-rich output fish Fish manure Certain artificially input (such as chemical fertilizers, etc.)

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