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Chapter 2 Literature Review. WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?. It is an account of what has been published on a research area It summarizes , synthesizes and evaluates (critiques) the studies reviewed It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 2 Literature Review

1Chapter 2Literature Review

2WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?It is an account of what has been published on a research areaIt summarizes, synthesizes and evaluates (critiques) the studies reviewedIt outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research It is defined by research objectives, issue/problem you are exploringIt is NOT just a description or summary of your readings.

3

SOURCES OF INFORMATION4

PrimarySourcesOwnexperience/

opinionOthers experience/

opinionInterviewQuestionnaireObservationExperiment5

Secondary

Sourcesreference works

books

journalsmagazines

newspapers

newsletter

brochures

electronic resources6

Cite sourcesAvoid plagiarism7PLAGIARISM

8

Source: wiki.noblenet.org 9

10

Taken from:info.library.unsw.edu.au 11In academic culture, plagiarism is a serious offense.

Committing plagiarism can result in being expelled from a university.

Therefore, it is in your best interest to learn CITING skills.WARNING:12PLAGIARISMparaphrasingsummarisingquotingcopyingPLAGIARISM

Without adequate documentation13

Ways to Use Secondary DataParaphraseSummariseQuoteParaphrase/Summarise 14Table of main idea15QUOTING is copying authors original words andputting them in quotation marks16

Quoting GuideLess than 40 words

incorporateinto the textMore than 40 words

use a separateblockquotationSome Rules to In-Text Citation - Direct Quotation - According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

17Jones's (1998) study found the following:

18Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)19

Useful Expressions whenQuoting/Paraphrasing/Summarisingstate

find

discoverconclude

review

discoversuggest

list

reveal

illustrateclaim

analyse

report

showrecommend

maintain

assume

indicateWhat is in-text citation?According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998).Reference List?Strahan, D. (2009, September). A real waste of waste. Ecologist, (3), 2-4. Kazmin, A. (2009, September 9). 'Politics of water' leaves Punjab in deep trouble. Financial Times. Retrieved from http://www.ft.com Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R.(1991).APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.21A Work with One Author use surname but do not include suffix (such as Jr.) or professional titles (such as Dr.) As Resnick (1997) described in her adventure, the people of South Africa are committed to the future.The people of South Africa are committed to the future (Resnick, 1997).

A Work with Two Authors - use both names each time the reference is cited; use & instead of and in the parenthetical citation, but do not substitute in the sentence. Smith and Jones (2005) found As the research shows (Smith & Jones, 2005) 22Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary - A Work with 3, 4, or 5 Authors use all authors for the first mention and the first author and et al. for subsequent referralsCarey, Elfstrand, and Hijleh (2005) found [first citation to this work] As this study shows (Carey et al., 2005) [all subsequent references to above work]

A Work with More than 6 Authors use the first author and et al. and the year. Gordon et al. (2009) showed As shown previously (Gordon et al., 2009) 23Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary - A Work with a Group as Author corporations, associations, government agencies use the full name in each citation unless the abbreviation is well known and is easily recognizable for locating the entry in the Reference list. Rose Society (1999) or (Rose Society, 1999) [all citations to this work no common abbreviation or acronym] United Nations Childrens Fund (2007) or (United Nations Childrens Fund, 2007) [first citation] UNICEF (2007) or (UNICEF, 2007) [subsequent referrals to this work common acronym reader would know to look for entry under United Nations Childrens Fund in the Reference list]24Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary - A Work with No Author instead of the author use the title or the first few words of the title (if the title is long). If the title is to a chapter, an article or a web page, put the words in quotes; if the title is to a book, a periodical, a brochure or report, use italics. A study on internet use (Survey Shows, 2008) [This is a web page from a web site; use quotation marks since work is a part of a whole] The brochure Facts about HIV/AIDS (2009) [Use italics since this is a whole work] Secondary Sources use only when unable to review the original workFreemans work (as cited in Franklin, 2001) purports [Franklin is listed in the Reference list]25Some Rules to In-Text Citation - Paraphrase/Summary - Publication date appears in parentheses, followed by a period. Use (n.d.) when no publication date is availableItalicize titles of whole entities - books, periodicals, brochures, films, reports, etc. - not chapters or article titles Italicize volume numbers of magazines and journals, but not the issue number. Electronic Sources not based on a Print Version Use this statement Retrieved MONTH DATE, YEAR, from URL

26Some Rules to Reference ListMagazine, newsletter, or journal article in print Nayak, N. V. & Taylor, J. E. (2009, October). Offshore outsourcing in global design networks. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25, 177-184. Strahan, D. (2009, September). A real waste of waste. Ecologist, (3), 2-4. Twitter: a vampire that can legally suck the life out of you. (2009, September 21). Advertising Age, 80(31), 42. 27Some Rules to Reference List- Examples - Journal article retrieved online (web or database) provide homepage URL of the journal, newsletter or magazine rather than electronic database information. Clemmitt, M. (2009, October 9). Medication abuse. CQ Researcher, 19, 837-860. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/28Some Rules to Reference List- Examples - Newspaper article in print and retrieved online use p. or pp. for page numbers in a newspaper Kazmin, A. (2009, September 9). 'Politics of water' leaves Punjab in deep trouble. Financial Times, p. 6. Kazmin, A. (2009, September 9). 'Politics of water' leaves Punjab in deep trouble. Financial Times. Retrieved July 6, 2009, from http://www.ft.com29Some Rules to Reference List- Examples - Entire book, print version Belasco, W. J. (2007). Appetite for change: How the counterculture took on the food industry. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Entire book, electronic version of a print book electronic retrieval information replaces publication information. If DOI available, that is all that is needed. Bohman, J. (2007). Democracy across borders: From Dmos to Dmoi. Retrieved July, 6 2009, from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/rit/docDetail.action? docID=1019046330Some Rules to Reference List- Examples - Book chapter, article in edited bookCarll, E. K. (2008). Violent video games and aggressive behavior in children are linked. In Gerdes, L. (Ed.). Opposing Viewpoints: Violence. (pp. 6-21). Chicago, IL: American Library Association. Unpublished WorkLipkens, R. (1992). A behaviour analysis of complex human functioning: Analogical reasoning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada-Reno, Nevada, USA.31QueryConference/Proceedings?Evers, G. & Isernberg, M. (2009, January). Reliability and validity of self-care agency scale. Paper presented at the International Nursing Research Conference, Washington, DC.Evers, G. & Isernberg, M. (2009, January). Reliability and validity of self-care agency scale. In Bauer, B. (Ed.), Conceptual issues in family caregiving research: Proceedings of the International Nursing Research Conference (pp. 20-30). Washington, DC: University of Washington.

32Online article with no page number:Use abbreviation "para." followed by the paragraph number you are citing. When possible, specify a section of the article.(Myers, 2000, para. 5)(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para. 1)PresentationWorral, P. S. & Levin, R.(2004, June).Developing a statewide research agenda. Presentation given at the biannual meeting of the American Nurses Association,Minneapolis, MN.33How Do You Cite a Google Book?

Students are starting to turn to the resource for their research.The answer wasnt immediately clear!Ballard, J. N. (1998). The History of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Washington: DIANE Publishing. p. 143.ISBN 0-7881-7666-8. Google Book Search. Retrieved on December 23, 20073435ParaphraseSummarizeQuote- To retain ideas in the original passage but put them in your own words.- To condense a long detail passage.- To use the exact words of the original.361. PARAPHRASINGInvolve restating the ideas from a passage in your own wordsParaphrased text is usually the same length as the originalExample37SourceIt has long been known that Cairo is the most populous city on earth, but no-one knew exactly how populous it was until last month. (Chan Kian Hwa, 2010)ParaphraseAlthough Cairo according to Chan Kian Hwa (2010) has been the world's most heavily populated city for many years, the precise population was not known until four weeks ago.

The following stages may

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