chapter 2 indoor and outdoor air pollution
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UNIT KEJURUTERAAN ALAM SEKITAR JABATAN KEJURUTERAAN AWAM POLITEKNIK SULTAN IDRIS SHAH
CHAPTER 2INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION
Upon completion of this course, student should be able to :Identify the origin of indoor and outdoor air pollutionExplain the pollutants that contribute to indoor and outdoor air pollution.Justify the sources of indoor and outdoor air pollutionIdentify the passages of air pollutants to human and environment.Explain indoor and outdoor pollution standard and guidelines.Adapt the indoor and outdoor standard and guidelines used in Malaysia and other countries.Analyze Air Pollution Index System in Malaysia.Calculate the Air Pollution Index.
Air Quality Standards Achievement
Pre-Industrial EraEarly-Industrial EraEarly 20th CenturyLate 20th CenturyEras of Air PollutionEarly 21st Century
Chemical Composition of Dry Air
OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION
Outdoor Air Pollution: HistoryNot a new problem, but scale has changed during industrial revolution.London smog killed 2,000 in 1880, 1,000 in 1911 and between 4,000 and 12,000 in 1952 1948 Donora 6,000 sick1963 NYC 300 killed1970, 77, 90 CAA
Sources: Forest fires-ash, particulates, carbon dioxideVolcanoes- ash, acid mist, hydrogen sulfideDecaying vegetation- sulfur cmpdsTrees & bushes- Volatile Organic compounds (VOCs) give Blue Ridge Mtns. their blue huePollen SporesVirusesBacteriaDust- from storms in arid regionsGut bacteria- methane gas
Primary vs. Secondary PollutantsPrimary- put directly into air from polluting source.Secondary- when primary combines with other substances in air and creates something more hazardous (acid rain, smog)Sun often provides energy for these reactions.
Major Sources of Primary PollutantsStationary SourcesCombustion of fuels for power and heat Power PlantsOther burning such as wood & crop burning or forest firesIndustrial/ commercial processesSolvents and aerosolsMobile SourcesHighway: cars, trucks, buses and motorcyclesOff-highway: aircraft, boats, locomotives, farm equipment, RVs, construction machinery, and lawn mowers
Outdoor Air PollutionSources:
Mobile or Stationary
Most urban area pollution source is burning fossil fuels.
Criteria Air PollutantsEPA uses six "criteria pollutants" as indicators of air qualitySulfur Dioxide: SO2Nitrogen Dioxide: NO2Carbon monoxide: COLead: PbParticulate Matter: PM10 (PM 2.5) Ozone: ground level O3
Outdoor Air PollutionCarbon Monoxide: colorless, odorless, deadly gas
Sources: motor vehicles, cigarettesImpacts: reduces ability of blood to carry oxygenNitrogen Dioxide: reddish-brown chemical found in smog
Sources: burning fossil fuels and industrial processesImpacts: lung irritation, aggravates asthma, reduces visibility,
Outdoor Air PollutionSulfur Dioxide: colorless gas, major source of acid depositionSources: coal burning power plantsImpacts: acid deposition, breathing problems, property damage, soil, aquatic life damage
Particulate Matter: particles in the air, range from small to largeSources: burning fossil fuels (diesel), agriculture, fires, unpaved roadsImpacts: lung damage, asthma, reduced life
Categorized by source:
Primary particles natural and human activities (soil and dust, sea salt, construction, fossil fuel)
Secondary particles - conversion of SOx, NOx, ammonia and organic compounds in atmospheric chemical reactions to sulfates, nitrates and ammonium compounds, and non-volatile organics
US EPA. 2010, National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html Krzyzanowski, M. and Cohen, A., Update of WHO Air Quality Guidelines, Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2008, pp. 7-13. DOI: 10.1007/s11869-008-0008-9Department of Environment, Malaysia, Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2006. Publication Section, Strategic Communications Division Department of Environment, Malaysia, 2007
Standard/guidelinesAgencyAveraging timesPM10 (mg/m3)PM2.5 (mg/m3)National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) US EPA24-hour15035Annual -15Revised Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) WHO24-hour5025Annual2010Recommended Malaysia Ambient Air Quality Guidelines 1989 (RMAAQG)Department of Environment (DOE), Malaysia24-hour150 -Annual50 -National Environment Agency (NEA), Singapore24-hour15035Annual5015Ambient Air StandardPollution Control Department (PCD), Thailand24-hour12050Annual5025
Outdoor Air PollutionOzone: highly reactive gas with an unpleasant odor, commonly known as smog in troposphere Bad OzoneSources: chemical reaction with VOCs and NOx from cars.Impacts: breathing problems, eyes, nose , mouth irritation, lung disease, crop damage, visability.Lead: solid metal and compounds emitted as PMSources: paint, smelters, battery storage, leaded gasImpacts: neurological problems, carcinogen
Other Air PollutantsCarbon dioxide- natural source from photosynthesis & respiration; human caused from fossil fuels & deforestationChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)- from refrigerants, aerosols, StyrofoamFormaldehyde- building materials & household productsBenzene- paintAsbestos- car brakes, building materialsDioxins- pesticidesCadmium- smelting, batteries, plastics industry
Formation & Intensity of Pollutant is influenced by
Local climate (inversions, air pressure, temperature, humidity)Topography (hills and mountains)Population densityAmount of industryFuels used by population and industry for heating, manufacturing, transportation, powerWeather: rain, snow,windBuildings (slow wind speed)Mass transit used
What is photochemical smog?Secondary Pollutant
VOCs + NOx + heat + Sunlight = Ground Level Ozone (O3)Complex series of chemical reactions
SMOG (smoke + fog)
What is photochemical smog?All modern cities have smog, but it is more common in hot, sunny, warm climates with a lot of motor vehicle traffic.
What time of year do you think it is most common?
Los AngelesDenverMexico CityHoustonBeijing China
What is photochemical smog?Industrial Smog: a mixture of SO2, droplets of sulfuric acid and suspended PM from burning coal and oil.
More of a problem today in developing counties.
Coal burning HUGE issue.
Health Impacts of SmogSmog Impacts:Breathing ProblemsCoughing, Eye IrritationAggravates asthma, heart problemsSpeeds up aging of lung tissueDamage plantsReduce Visibility
Factors Influencing Smog Formation Smog Levels Are Influenced By:Local climateTopographyPopulation DensityAmount of industryTransportation
Factors Influencing Smog FormationNatural Factors Can Reduce Smog:Rain or snow can wash airSalty Sea Spray can also wash airWinds can push pollutants elsewhere
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
Indoor Air Pollution
Fig. 20-13 p.450
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?Cigarette smokeDeadliest indoor air pollutantContain formaldehyde, carbon monoxideCauses lung cancer, emphysemaSecond hand smoke may be worse due to particulates that come from tip.
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?MoldMoisture in vents, carpetsAllergy symptoms, breathing problems, headache, fatigue
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?Carbon monoxideMalfunctioning furnace, gas appliances, carsBlood cannot carry oxygenFeel sleepy, nausea, dizzy, cause death.
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?RadonColorless, odorless, radioactive gasComes from soil under basementsLong term exposure can cause lung cancerFix cracks in floor or walls to prevent influx of radonInstall ventilation fan in basement to blow radon out.
Zone 1 (purple) high levels of radonZone 3 (yellow) low levels of radon
Lung cancer threat
Occurs in certain areas based on geology
Associated with uranium and organic material in rock
Fig. 20-14 p. 451
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?AsbestosRoofing, flooring, insulation, brakesOK unless disturbed or deterioratesCan cause asbestosis (scarring of lungs) and mesothelioma (type of lung cancer)
Plaque build up (scarring) in lung w/asbestosis
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?LeadOld homes, toys, lead crystal dishesCauses behavior & learning problems, slow growth, hearing problems, headaches
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?FormaldehydePressed wood, paneling, particle board, glue, deodorizersRespiratory irritation, fatigue, skin rash, known to cause cancer
What are some sources of indoor air pollution?8. VOCsParadichlorobenzene- mothballs, insecticidesPERC- dry cleaned clothesBenzene- paints, cigarettesCauses respiratory problems, headaches, loss of coordination, nausea, organ damage, cancer
Standard and Guidelines Indoor Air Quality
Sources involved in IAQ problems Evaluations by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for studies on more than 500 Indoor Air quality health hazard cases
Problem OriginPercentTypical SourcesInadequate Building Ventilation Systems53%Lack of outside air, poor air distribution, uncomfortable temperature and humidity, contaminant sources inside the systemContaminants Originating Inside Building 15%Solvent vapors, dusts, formaldehyde, building materials, furnishingsBuilding Products4%Concrete, wood, furnishings.Unknown Causes13%Unidentified sourcesOutdoor Conta