Chapter 19 Air Pollution

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Chapter 19 Air Pollution. Atmosphere as a Resource. Atmospheric Composition N: 78.08% O: 20.95% Ar : 0.93% CO 2 : 0.04% Ecosystem services Blocks UV radiation Moderates the climate Redistributes water. Air Pollution - Terminology. Air Pollution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<ul><li><p>Chapter 19Air Pollution</p></li><li><p> Atmosphere as a ResourceAtmospheric CompositionN: 78.08%O: 20.95%Ar: 0.93%CO2: 0.04%Ecosystem servicesBlocks UV radiationModerates the climateRedistributes water </p></li><li><p> Air Pollution - TerminologyAir PollutionChemicals added to the atmosphere by natural events or human activities in high enough concentrations to be harmful Primary Air PollutantHarmful substance that is emitted directly into the atmosphere Secondary Air PollutantHarmful substance formed in the atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with substances normally found in the atmosphere or with other air pollutants </p></li><li><p> Major Air Pollutants</p></li><li><p> Particulate MaterialThousands of solid or liquid particles suspended in airEx: soil particles, soot, lead, asbestos, sea salt, and sulfuric acid droplets Dangeroustoxic/carcinogenic effects</p></li><li><p> Nitrogen and Sulfur OxidesNitrogen OxidesGreenhouse gases that cause difficulty breathing and leads to photochemical smogSulfur OxidesCauses acid precipitationCarbon OxidesEx: CO and CO2 Greenhouse gasesHydrocarbons- ex: CH4- methaneSome are related to photochemical smog and greenhouse gases</p></li><li><p> OzoneTropospheric Ozone-Man- made pollutant Secondary air pollutantComponent of photochemical smog VS.Stratospheric Ozone-</p></li><li><p> Sources of Outdoor Air PollutionTwo main sources1. Transportation2. Industry</p></li><li><p> Urban Air PollutionSmog- air pollution that reduces visibilityPhotochemical Smogformed by chemical reactions involving sunlight, nitrogen oxide, and hydrocarbons </p></li><li><p> Formation of Photochemical Smog</p></li><li><p> Sources of Smog in Los Angeles</p></li><li><p> Effects of Air PollutionGreater health threat to children than adultsAir pollution can restrict lung developmentChildren breath more often than adults</p></li><li><p>ScrubberElectrostatic precipitator Controlling Air Pollution- (particulate matter) </p></li><li><p> The Clean Air Act 1970Authorizes EPA to set limits on amount of specific air pollutants permittedFocuses on 6 pollutants:lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and ozone</p></li><li><p> The Clean Air Act</p></li><li><p> Urban Air Quality</p></li><li><p> Other Ways to Improve Air QualityReduce sulfur content in gasolineRequire federal emission standards for all passenger vehiclesRequire emission testing for all vehicles</p></li><li><p> Ozone Depletion in StratosphereOzone Protects earth from UV radiation</p></li><li><p> Ozone Depletion in StratosphereOzone thinning/holeFirst identified in 1985 over AntarcticaCaused by human-produced bromine and chlorine containing chemicalsEx: CFCs</p></li><li><p> Effects of Ozone DepletionHigher levels of UV-radiation hitting the earthEye cataractsSkin cancer (right)Weakened immunityMay disrupt ecosystemsMay damage crops and forests</p></li><li><p> Recovery of Ozone LayerMontreal Protocol (1987)Reduction of CFCsStarted using HCFCs (greenhouse gas)Full recovery will not occur until 2050</p></li><li><p> Acid Deposition</p></li><li><p> Effects of Acid DepositionDeclining Aquatic Animal PopulationsThin-shelled eggs prevent bird reproductionCalcium is unavailable in acidic soilForest decline</p></li><li><p> Acid Deposition and Forest Decline</p></li><li><p> Air Pollution Around the WorldAir quality is deteriorating rapidly in developing countries 5 worst cities in worldBeijing, China; Mexico City, Mexico; Shanghai, China; Tehran, Iran; and Calcutta, India Air pollution can travel thousands of miles</p></li><li><p> Indoor Air PollutionPollutants can be 5-100X greater than outdoors!</p></li><li><p> Ahhhhh Clean Car SmellTen Most Toxic Nissan Versa Chevy Aveo Scion xB Kia Rio Suzuki Forenza Kia Spectra 5 Subaru Forester Chevy Express Hyundai Accent Chevy SilveradoTen Least Toxic Chevy Cobalt Chrysler PT Cruiser Honda Odyssey Volvo V50 Suzuki Aerio Acura RDX BMW X3 Nissan Frontier Toyota Matrix Volvo S40 Over sixty chemicals were identified inside the interiors of the four vehicles in this study. volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in a new minivan were over 35 times the health limit the day after its delivery </p><p>*********Intentional forest fires is also high</p><p>***********Hole over Antarctica requires 2 conditions:a mass of cold air that circulates around the southern polar region forms clouds which Cl and Br stick toSunlight-speeds up the reaction in which Cl and Br break up ozone</p><p>********</p></li></ul>