Chapter 18 : Section 3 - ?· 4/12/10 1 Chapter 18 : Section 3 The Holocaust Anti-Semitism Hatred of…

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4/12/10 1 Chapter 18 : Section 3 The Holocaust Anti-Semitism Hatred of Jews It was easier for Hitler to blame others for the problems of Germany. The Jews MEIN KAMPF filled with anti-semitism. From MEIN KAMPF Let the desolation which Jewish hybridization daily visits on our nation be clearly seen, this blood-poisoning that can be removed from our body national. 4/12/10 2 The Holocaust Official Nazi policy. 6 million European Jews killed. 2/3 the total population. 5-6 million others died in the concentration camps. Gypsies, Gays, people that opposed Hitler and Nazism, mentally ill, homeless, Jehovahs Witnesses. Nazi Policies about Jews Exclude and isolate Jews. Laws to keep them from participating in political, social or economic life. Urged people to boycott Jewish businesses. Have no Jewish employees. No marriage or mixing between Jews and Aryans. What made a person a Jew in Hitlers Germany? A person who had three or four Jewish grandparents DESPITE their current religion. Any person with two Jewish grandparents that practiced the Jewish religion. 4/12/10 3 Identifying Jews Forced to have J on all identity cards. Wear yellow stars on all clothing. Made Jews open to public attack and police harassment. Kept Jews from going to Switzerland. Hitlers Police Gestapo Secret Police Identify and pursue enemies of the Nazis SS Schutzstaffel Private army of the Nazis Guarded and collected information on prisoners Kristallnacht November 9, 1938 Night of Broken Glass Nazi destruction of Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues Thousands arrested and shipped off to Concentration Camps 4/12/10 4 Jewish Refugees Sought to get away from Hitler and the Nazis. Escapes to other European countries. Depression and anti-semitism prevented the US from taking in many. Evian Conference:1938 Meant to find solution for Jewish refugees. Meant to stop Jewish refugees from going to Palestine. Out of 32 nations attending ONLY the Dominican Republic agreed to take refugees. From Murder to Genocide As the Nazis moved into European countries the SS and Gestapo found many Jews. 2 million in Poland Many were refugees from Germany 4/12/10 5 The Warsaw Ghetto 400,000 Jews confined to a few blocks. Sealed off with brick and barbed wire. Little food, overcrowded, no medical and no sanitation. The Warsaw Ghetto Thousands died every month. But that was too inefficient for the Nazis The Einsatzgruppen Other ways to kill Jews. Mobile execution squads. Babi Yar 33,000 Jews killed in 2 days. STILL not efficient enough for the Nazis. 4/12/10 6 Wannsee Conference The Final Solution for the Jews. Special camps in Poland to commit GENOCIDE. Deliberate destruction of an entire ethnic or cultural group. The Death Camps Poison gas to be used to kill. Zyklon B most effective gas. Built 6 camps for primary purpose of mass murder. The Death Camps Jews from Poland, Netherlands, Germany and other occupied lands were sent to the camps. Transported in cattle cars. 4 of 6 camps sent everyone directly to death. 4/12/10 7 Auschwitz: The worst Prisoners herded off the transport and put into two lines. Elderly, women with children, those who were sick or looked weak were taken to the showers Auschwitz Jewish prisoners who were healthy had the job of carrying out the bodies and putting them in the crematoria. Sorted clothing, belongings, any gold fillings from bodies. Auschwitz Life expectancy for prisoners was months. 12,000 victims could be gassed a day. Some used for medical experiments. 1.5 million died in Auschwitz. 90% were Jews 4/12/10 8 Fighting Back Some Jews joined Resistance networks and fought the Nazis. Violent uprisings in some ghettos Death camp Treblinka was so damaged in rioting, it closed. All rebellions were crushed Rescue and Liberation The US had a good idea of what was happening at Death Camps in 1942 Disbelief No interest in the media or in Washington. Problem wasnt here. Rescue and Liberation 1944 FDR created the War Refugee Board to help Jews escape the Nazis Funded Raoul Wallenberg to save thousands of Hungarian Jews. 4/12/10 9 Rescue and Liberation April 1945 : Liberation of the camps. US and Allied forces arrived. Nuremberg Trials After the war 24 Nazi defendants were put on trial for crimes against humanity for WWII atrocities. 12 received death sentences. Importance of the Nuremberg Trials People couldnt use the excuse they were just following orders as a defense for what they did. Individuals are responsible for their own actions. 4/12/10 10 Funny: We need it after what we saw. If you love it, you have to let it go. Kittys love water

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