chapter 17 study guide answers

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Chapter 17 Study Guide Answers. 1. What is weather?. the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place - controlled by Earth’s motions & energy from the sun. 2. What is climate?. the given weather conditions of an area over many years avg. rainfall avg. temp avg. humidity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 17 Study Guide Answers

Chapter 17 Study Guide Answers1. What is weather?the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place- controlled by Earths motions & energy from the sun

2. What is climate?the given weather conditions of an area over many yearsavg. rainfallavg. tempavg. humidityavg. wind directionavg. air pressure etc

3. What is the current composition of our atmosphere? Give gases & %Current composition of atmosphere:78% Nitrogen21% Oxygen0.93% Argon (inert gas)0.039% Carbon DioxideAlso present in atmosphere = water vapor, dust, ozone, and pollutionOZONE4. O3

5. Found in the stratosphere- between 10-50 km from surface, it increases the temperature6. Blocks harmful Ultraviolet (UV) rays7. 4 layers of atmosphereTroposphere = temperature decreases as you increase altitude- Extends from surface to ~12 km- All weather occurs hereStratosphere = slight increase in temperature- Extends from 12km to ~50 km- Contains the Ozone Layer (absorbs UV to increase temperature) Mesosphere = temperatures decrease with altitude- No definite upper limit - Temperatures near -90CThermosphere = temperatures increase due to absorption of high energy solar radiation- No definite upper limit

8. What layer does weather occur?Troposphere- all weather phenomena 9. How much of the suns energy is reflected back into space?~30% is reflected back into space10. What is reflection?When light bounces off an object11. What is scattering? When weak light rays travel in different directions12. What is conduction?Conduction = transfer of heat through direct contact of molecules

heat flows from the hotter object into the colder object

13. What is convection?Convection = transfer of heat by mass movement or circulation within a substance

heat from below (ground) conducts heat near the base of the atmosphere, the air 14. What is radiation? Radiation = heat is radiated (travels by waves) from the sun and hits the atmosphere

some radiated energy is absorbed and some is reflected (bounced) back into space:~30% is reflected back into space~50% is absorbed by land & sea~20% is absorbed by clouds & atmosphere

15. Greenhouse effect..why is it good?Earths atmosphere naturally absorbs heat from the sun because of water vapor & carbon dioxide

atmosphere traps heat near the Earths surfaceWithout this natural greenhouse effect, Earths temperature would be much colder (uninhabitable for humans)

16. Global warmingwhy is it bad?Global warming is an increase in temp. of Earths atmosphere that may be caused by human activity

Affects overall climate and animal habitats17. 5 factors that influence temp. on EarthLatitudeHeating of land & waterAltitudeGeographic positionCloud cover18. How does latitude affect Earths temp?Latitude (distance from the equator)Differences in amount of solar radiation receivedVariations in the angle of suns raysLength of daylight

19. Why do land & water have diff temps?Land heats more rapidly and to higher temperatures than water- Land also cools more rapidly and to lower temperatures than water- Cities near water have a smaller daily temperature change compared to cities more inland

20. What happens to temp. as you increase altitudeThe higher the altitude, the colder the temperatures21. When does summer solstice occur?On June 21 or 2221. When does winter solstice occur?On December 21 or 2223. When does spring equinox occur?March 21 or 2224. When does autumnal equinox occur?September 22 or 2325. What is the tilt of Earths axis23.526. What causes seasons?The tilt of the Earths axis27. What are isotherms?Line on a map connecting points of equal temperature28. What is albedo?Albedo- the fraction of total radiation that is reflected by any surface29. Clouds and keeping Earth cool & warm..Day- clouds reduce radiation and keep it cooler. No clouds means its warmer.

Night- its the opposite; clouds act like a blanket & keep it warm. A clear night means its cooler