chapter 16 prevention and control of mobs and riots
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- Chapter 16 PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF MOBS AND RIOTS
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- 1. Preliminary Remarks A primary responsibility of the PNP is to maintain law and order. The police can best perform this vital role when they have the whole hearted support of all segments of the community-civic organization s, church leaders, public officials, business leaders, news media and other responsible members of the community
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- 2. Types of Crowds: Casual crowds - A casual crowds is a group of people who happen to be present at a given place but who are not unified or organized. - With no common interest or purpose - They have no particular leaders. Example: A group of shoppers.
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- Cohesive Crowd - A cohesive crowd is a group of people who are assembled for some specific purpose. - Held together by common interest. - The interest that brought them together is in most cases momentary and they are usually not under well-defined leadership. Example: An audience at a concert, fans at a sporting event, people watching a fire, or those present at the scene of an accident. Note: A casual crowd can very easily turn into a cohesive crowd.
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- Expressive Crowd - An expressive crowd is a group in which the people are held together by some common purpose. - They usually hold more or less similar attitudes for or against something. - They are ordinarily under the direction of a well-defined leadership and display a unified mood.
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- Example: Political rally, picket line, religious revival. Note: An expression crowd is at the same time a cohesive crowd.
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- Aggressive Crowd - In this type, the people, under the positive leadership and strong emotions, engage in some kind of aggressive action. - They come together because of strong feelings about some issues and show definite unity in purpose. - Their action maybe impulsive and highly emotional and, unfortunately, may become destructive. - The aggressive crowd is at the same time expressive and cohesive.
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- 3. Basic Behavior Patterns in Mobs a)Aggressive. Often, the object of violence is some person or group of person, while at other times, it may be property; in some cases both. a) Escapist. This is seen in panic situation. Individuals driven by overwhelming fear react emotionally and irrationally to avoid the sources of danger.
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- c) Acquisitive. What starts out in some cases as a riot soon changes into a wild and uncontrolled looting spree. d) Expressive. Expressive behavior can very easily be converted into one of the other types by a demagogue or professional agitator.
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- 4. The People Involved. a)Impulsive and Lawless persons. b)Suggestible persons. They get into the action early. c)Cautious individuals. They wait for the cloak of anonymity to give them courage to act. d)Yielder. They hang back on the sidelines and do not participate until the large number of persons participating gives impression to act.
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- e)Supportive. They do not actively join the mob but enjoy the show and even shout encouragement. f)Resister. They maintain level heads and disagree with the actions of the majority. g)Psychopathic individuals. They use the riotous situation as a means of getting even with the sociaty.
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- 5. The Pattern of Preparation. a)Factors which prepare the way: (i) Verbal aggression. (ii) Increased irritation caused by frustrations. (iii) Group discontent. (iv) Provocation, real or imaginary. (v) Previous isolation cases of violent aggression. (vi) Social contagion or social facilitation.
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- b) The role of the rumor. - Rumor plays a major part in crystallizing group or public opinion. - Some expert believe that no riot ever take place with out build up through rumor. - A rumor can often be spark that sets off the explosion. - It is circulated rapidly and through distortion, it grows in its ugliness at each recitation.
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- 6. The Pattern of Action. a)Bristling Stage b)Growth of crowd c)Milling d)Precipitating event e)Hysterical, uncontrolled violence, anonymity and universality f)Spread of violence
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- 7.Aftermath - it stimulates determination to prepare for the next one 8.Leadership - Sometimes spontaneous and sometimes calculated and organized, these are the people who whip up the frenzy after which they stand back and let the others do the actual fighting.
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- 9. Symptoms to Which Police Must be Alert -Increased bitterness as shown in: a)Sentiments and opinion of the populace. b)Rumor. c)Publication frequently give an indication of the mounting tension. d)Publication demonstrations.
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- 10. Organize Activities. - Law enforcement executives must know what organization are active and what their programs are. - Any programs or proposed action must receive careful study in terms of their effect on the community and in terms of possible retaliation by opposing groups. - Watch for any unusual influx of outsiders. - Be alert to an increasing mistrust of police.
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- 11. Planning for Disturbance. -The plan must be thoroughly detailed ahead of the disturbance and founded upon realistic consideration. a)Identification of critical areas or possible trouble spots. b)Code signals for mobilization of the force. c)Coordination with other municipal agencies and public utilities.
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- d) Communication equipment for immediate use and reserve: (i) Public address system (ii) Mobile telephone (iii) Bullhorns (iv) Walkie-talkie (v) Radio telephone
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- e) Illumination and power equipment: (i) Flashlights (ii) Generators (iii) Floodlights (iv) Searchlights
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- f) Other equipment: (i) Oxygen equipment 1. Oxygen cylinder 2. Inhalators 3. Masks (ii) Police barriers and ropes for temporary police lines should be ready. (iii) Vehicles for transportation of personnel, equipment and prisoners. (iv) stretchers, cots, blankets, first aid equipment. (v) photographic equipment to document the action for future reference.
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- g) Intelligence (i) Every sources of information must be cultivated. (ii) The temper of the community must be known. (iii) Rumors must be reported to headquarters and false rumors should be debunked and the people reassured. (iv) Names and description (v) Factual and opinion data should be collected. (vi) Time and location of the gathering as well as the purpose. (vii) A reasonable estimate of the estimate of the expected attendance and the identification of likely antagonistic groups.
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- h) Strategy to followed. - Overall strategy should be based on the precept contain, isolate, disperse. - Special zone from which all unauthorized vehicular traffic proceed may be excluded. - The requirement of the situation coupled with the availability of personal, space, and equipment will serve as limiting or modifying factors in the preparation of any plan. - The innermost area is the critical area surrounded by isolation zone. The strategy here is to prevent the curios from joining the disorderly and thereby contain the existing situation.
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- i)Tactics to employ: (i) Speed and Decisiveness (ii) Field commander will not use his first tactics until sufficient force is available. (iii)Should arrive and form out of the mobs sight, to prevent attack by the mob before they got organized. (iv) May now issue over the public address system his proclamation to disperse. (v) Foot patrol at strategic places will tactfully and firmly.
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- (vi) A divided and leaderless mob is a far less formidable adversary. (vii) Agitators who are strategically placed throughout the mob should be identified and removed as soon as the opportunity to do so presents itself.
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- (vii) Specific riot control formations: 1. Squad Line - Used in a small areas. Usual purpose: holding formation; to block entrance to a building; deny area to a crowd; block a street; clear a crowd out of a confined area. Commands: Verbal SQUAD LINE, MOVE! The command may be given by arm signal.
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- 2.Squad Wedge. - Generally used as a striking force. It should not move so far into a crowd as to permit the crowd to encircle the formation. Command: SQUAD WEDGE, MOVE! May also given by arm signal.
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- - end - AMPARO, LEO MARK M.
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