chapter 16: evolution of populations

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Chapter 16: Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation 16.2 Evolution as Genetic Change 16.3 The Process of Speciation. Population Genetics. Evolutionary thought today is tightly linked to genetics. Remember, populations, not individuals evolve . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Chapter 16: Evolution of Populations16.1 Genes and Variation16.2 Evolution as Genetic Change16.3 The Process of Speciation

  • Chapter 16 Concept Map

    Gene Pool

    Different Types of Natural Selection

    Stabilizing Selection

    Directional Selection

    Disruptive Selection

    example

    example

    example

    Relative Frequency

    Genetic Equilibrium

    Genetic Drift

    Hardy-Weinberg Principle

    founder effect

    single gene trait

    polygenic trait

    Pg. 398-399

    Pg. 395-401

    Pg. 393-394

  • Chapter 16 Concept Map

    Speciation

    Geographic Isolation

    example

    Reproduction Isolation

    example

    example

    example

    17.4. Macroevolution

    extinction

    adaptive radiation

    example

    example

    convergent evolution

    coevolution

    punctuated equilibrium

    gradualism

    example

    Behavorial Isolation

    Temporal Isolation

    Divergent

    Pg. 404-409

    Pg. 435-440

  • Evolutionary thought today is tightly linked to genetics.Remember, populations, not individuals evolve.All the alleles in a pop. added together are called the gene pool.

    Population Genetics

  • Blue People of Kentucky

  • Population GeneticsThe frequency that any one allele is seen in the population is called the allele frequency (relative frequency).Is the frequency of the dominant Huntingtons allele high?Is the frequency of the dominant allele causing 6 fingers high?

  • If the frequency of the alleles doesnt change over time, the population is at genetic equilibrium.Hardy-Weinberg Principlesee page 401

    Population Genetics

  • Population GeneticsWhen alleles are brought in and out of a population due to migration of individuals, it is called gene flow.

  • Population GeneticsWhen isolated chance events can alter gene frequencies in a population (therefore disrupting gene equilibrium) you have what is called genetic drift.Common in small isolated populations such as the Amish of Lancaster, PADarwins finches (perhaps)founder effect: change as a result of migration

  • Population GeneticsSources of Genetic Variation:MutationsGene ShufflingSingle gene traitPolygenic trait

  • Population GeneticsTypes of selection: When natural selection of a trait favors the average individuals in the pop. it is called stabilizing selection.

  • Population Genetics

    Types of selection:

    When natural selection favors both extreme phenotypes of a trait in a pop., it is called disruptive selection.

  • Population GeneticsTypes of selection:

    When natural selection favors one extreme phenotype of a trait, it is called directional selection.

  • Population GeneticsType of Selection??Grey mice are preyed upon but black and white mice are left alone?

    The longer a giraffes neck gets the more food is available, while short necked giraffes die of starvation before they can reproduce?

    A slow gazelle is easily caught by a cheetah, but one too fast breaks its legs easily and is eaten by hyenas??

    DisruptiveDirectionalStabilizng

  • Population GeneticsArtificial Selection: Selection for traits that are determined and monitored by man.Ex. Breeding animals such as dogs or cats.Sexual Selection: Selection by one gender for another gender.Ex. Peacock feathers, body hair disappearance in humans, walrus tusks.

  • SpeciationSpeciation is when a new species is formed. This means that the individuals in the new species can no longer produce successful offspring with the population from which they came.

  • SpeciationGeographic Isolation can cause speciation over long periods of time.The seperated organisms are adapting to different environments and responding differently.Eventually if a mating is attempted, they can no longer produce successful offspring with one another.

  • SpeciationReproductive Isolation is when a population can no longer successfully interbreed with its parent population (the pop. it came from).Reproduction if attempted will fail.Ex. One group breeds in the fall, one in the spring and over time the populations become new species incapable of interbreeding.Mating CallsCourtship rituals differ

  • SpeciationTemporal Isolation:Two or more species reproduce at different timesExample: orchid in the rainforest

  • SpeciationChanges in chromosome number can cause speciation.Some cases of polyploidy (more common in plants) produce individuals that can only mate with other polyploids in a pop.

  • 17.4 SpeciationCan occur rapidlyPunctuated EquilibriumGouldCan occur very slowlyGradualismDarwinsee page 439

  • 17.4 Patterns of EvolutionAdaptive Radiation: When an ancestral species evolves into several different species, each filling a specific niche.Darwins finchesHawaiian Honeycreepers (p. 406 &436).

  • 17.4 Patterns of EvolutionDivergent Evolution: Species that once were similar or closely related become very different.New Species are very different from each other.Ex. Adaptive Radiation

  • 17.4 Patterns of EvolutionConvergent Evolution: Unrelated species that live in similar environments evolve the same adaptations in order to survive.Ex. Tasmanian Wolf and North American Wolf.P. 437

  • Patterns of EvolutionCoevolution: the process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time.Example: flowering plants and their pollinatorPage 437http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio303/coevolution.htm

  • 17.4 NoteCommon genetic occurrences we have studied such as polyploidy, crossing over, and point mutations can provide the genetic basis for evolution. Although these genetic changes are not evolution themselves, they can begin the long process of evolution by affecting one individual in a population in a positive way. But only if the trait is passed on, and on, and on