Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Properties Arrhenius Definitions Bronsted-Lowry Definitions

Download Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Properties Arrhenius Definitions Bronsted-Lowry Definitions

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Properties Arrhenius Definitions Bronsted-Lowry Definitions </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Properties of Acids </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Properties of Bases </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Svante Arrhenius Acids and Bases BASES: yield OH - ions in water, substances that increase the OH - ion concentration when dissolved in water ACIDS: yield H + ions in water, substances that increase the H + ion concentration when dissolved in water </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Bronsted-Lowry Definition Broadens substances that be categorized as Acid or Base Involves the TRANSFER of H + ions </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Water to Hydronium Chemists use H + and H 3 O + interchangeably Considered the acidic form of water Amphoteric = react as an acid or base Amphiprotic = can donate and accept H + ion Watch This Tutorial </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) ACID BASE CONJUGATE BASE CONJUGATE ACID ACID = proton donor BASE = proton acceptor </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Practice Naming/Writing Conjugate Pairs ACID +BASE CONJUGATE BASE + CONJUGATE ACID HClH2OH2OH3O+H3O+ Cl - H2OH2ONH 3 OH - NH 4 + H 2 SO 4 NH 3 HSO 4 - NH 4 + </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Strengths of Acids and Bases The stronger an acid, the weaker its conjugate base. INVERSE relationship Table p. 657 1.STRONG acids completely ionize in water, have neglible conjugate bases. 2. WEAK acids partially ionize in water, have weak base conjugates. 3.NEGLIBLE acids incapable of protonation (do not dissociate), thus have strong base conjugates. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> In every acid-base reaction, equilibrium favors transfer of proton from the stronger acid to the stronger base to form the weaker acid and the weaker base. Acid-Base Equilibrium In any acid-base reaction, the equilibrium will favor the reaction that moves the proton to the stronger base. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> QUESTION? Predict whether equilibrium lies to the left or to the right. LEFT would be K c &lt; 1 RIGHT would be K c &gt; 1 ANSWER: Examine the two bases on table (forward and reverse rxns) H 2 O and Cl - H 2 O is a stronger base than Cl -, forward rxn favored, Equilibrium lies to right K c &gt; 1 HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> In any acid-base reaction, the equilibrium will favor the reaction that moves the proton to the stronger base. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) QUESTION? Predict whether equilibrium lies to the left or to the right. LEFT would be K c &lt; 1 RIGHT would be K c &gt; 1 Acetate is a stronger base than H 2 O, so the equilibrium favors the left side (K &lt; 1) </li> </ul>

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