chapter 15 russian geography

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  1. 1. Chapter 15 Physical Geography of Russia & the Republics A Land of Extremes Objective: Examine key features of the landforms, resources, climate, vegetation, & human- environment interaction in Russia & the Republics
  2. 2. Chapter 15 Section 1 Landforms & Resources Vocabulary: Chernozem, Ural Mountains, Eurasia, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, & Siberia Objective: Identify resources & explain why they are difficult to develop
  3. 3. Northern Landforms Russia & the Republics cover over eight & a half million square miles The Northern European plain contains chernozem fertile soil & most agriculture takes place here 75% of population live in this region (major cities Moscow, St. Petersburg, & Kiev) Ural Mountains divides Europe & Asia in the West Siberian Plain
  4. 4. Southern Landforms Transcaucasia contains Armenia, Azerbaijan, & Georgia Central Asia includes Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, & Uzbekistan High ranges contribute to the arid climate of Central Asia
  5. 5. Rivers & Lakes The main drainage basins in Russia & the Republics are the Arctic Ocean, Caspian Sea, Pacific Ocean, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, & Aral Sea Basins The Volga River carries 60% of Russias river traffic The Caspian & Aral Sea are two of the largest seas & both are saltwater Lake Baikal is the deepest lake in the world & holds 20% of the worlds fresh water
  6. 6. Regional Resources Russia & the Republics boast huge reserves of coal, deposits of iron ore, other metals, oil, & natural gas Russias vast forests hold 1/5th of the worlds timber resources Harsh climate, rugged terrain, & vast distances make it difficult for Russia & the Republics to remove resources from the ground & transport them to markets Resources are found in Siberia (frigid arctic & subarctic region)
  7. 7. Chapter 15 Section 2 Climate & Vegetation Vocabulary: Continentality & Taiga Objective: Describe four major vegetation regions of Russia & the Republics
  8. 8. A Climate of Extremes Humid continental & subarctic climates dominate much of Russia & the Republics Siberia average temperatures rarely exceed 50 degrees & sometimes drop below -90 degrees Some areas consist of permafrost Central Asia however have semiarid & desert climates Transcaucasia has a subtropical climate zone
  9. 9. Vegetation Regions Tundra: in the Arctic climate zones very few types of vegetation are able to survive Forest: also known as the Taiga Steppe: grassland that where fertile soil is found (produces mostly grain) Desert: two main deserts are the Kara Kum & Kyzyl Kum
  10. 10. Chapter 15 Section 3 Human-Environment Interaction Vocabulary: Runoff & Trans- Siberian Railroad Objective: Describe how Russias harsh winter has been both an obstacle & an advantage to the country
  11. 11. The Shrinking Aral Sea In the 1950s officials began to take large amounts of water from the rivers to irrigate Central Asias cotton fields Since the 1960s the sea has begun to evaporate Pesticides & fertilizers runoff into the Aral sea killing all of the native species of fish Pollution has caused drastic increases in diseases like throat cancer & respiratory diseases Child mortality rates in Central Asia are among the highest in the world
  12. 12. The Russian Winter 32 million people make their homes in Siberia Temperatures drop so low in Siberia that basic human activities become painful However, warmer weather melts the ice & creates pools of water that attract mosquitoes & black flies They build on top of concrete pillars to make sure their buildings dont sink in summer However its has helped to protect them from invasion of European armies
  13. 13. Crossing the Wild East Russias emperor ordered work to start on the Trans-Siberian Railroad that would link Moscow to Vladivostok It covers 5700 miles & crosses seven time zones Russian officials also started this project to populate Siberia to make profit off of its resources