chapter 14 - larceny/theft, fraud and white-collar crime

Download Chapter 14 - Larceny/Theft, Fraud and White-Collar Crime

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  1. 1. Chapter 14 Larceny/Theft, Fraud and White-Collar Crime Hess 14-1
  2. 2. Introduction Larceny/theft is one of the eight index crimes reported in the Federal Bureau of Investigations Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Reported larceny/thefts exceed the combined total of all other index crimes Minimum financial threshold of $250,000 for federal investigators to take the case Hess 14-2
  3. 3. PROPERTY CRIME Larceny is committed through cunning, skill and criminal design No force or threat of force is involved Characterized by deceit, concealment or violation of trust Goal is monetary gain Hess 14-3 Larceny/Theft: An Overview
  4. 4. ELEMENTS Felonious stealing, taking, carrying, leading or driving away of anothers personal goods or property Valued above (grand) or below (petty) a specified amount With the intent to permanently deprive the owner of the property or goods Hess 14-4 Elements of the Crime: Larceny/Theft
  5. 5. TWO MAJOR CATEGORIES Grand larceny Felony In many states, $100 or more Petty larceny Misdemeanor In many states, less than $100 Hess 14-5 Classification of Larceny/Theft
  6. 6. ISSUES Keeping or selling property lost by the owner is a form of theft It is not legal possession Reasonable effort must be made to find the owner Owner, if located, must pay the cost of such inquiries Hess 14-6 Found Property
  7. 7. OBSTACLES Similar to investigating a burglary Even less physical evidence is available No illegal or forcible entry occurred Do not give impression that the report is unimportant Hess 14-7 The Preliminary Investigation
  8. 8. PICKPOCKETS AND PURSE SNATCHERS Victim must identify the thief Looping BICYCLE THEFT Bicycle theft rings Sold for parts or repainted Hess 14-8 Types of Larceny/Theft
  9. 9. THEFT FROM MOTOR VEHICLES Most common complaint received Small property value MAIL THEFT Flaggers Felony-level federal offense Hess 14-9 Types of Larceny/Theft
  10. 10. RETAIL SHRINKAGE Employee theft Shoplifting Organized retail crime JEWELRY THEFT Because jewel thieves operate interstate, the FBI becomes involved Hess 14-10 Types of Larceny/Theft
  11. 11. ART THEFT Losses run as high as $6 billion annually International problem COINS, METALS AND PAPER MONEY Obtain exact description of the coins Gold, copper, silver and aluminum are valuable Hess 14-11 Types of Larceny/Theft
  12. 12. AGRICULTURAL THEFT Timber Cactus Livestock Farm equipment and chemicals FISH AND WILDLIFE THEFT Poaching Hess 14-12 Types of Larceny/Theft
  13. 13. OBTAINING PROOF Prove that the property is missing Bills of sale or receipts Evidence that the owner had custody Owner can testify to the actual value Take statements from the owner Hess 14-13 Proving the Elements of the Crime
  14. 14. OVERVIEW General term used for deceit, trickery and cheating Activity of persons pretending to be what they are not Often involves use of interstate communications devices Most types of fraud fall under FBI jurisdiction Hess 14-14 Fraud
  15. 15. CONFIDENCE GAMES Money or property is obtained by a trick Short and long con game REAL ESTATE AND MORTGAGE FRAUD Equity skimming Property flipping Inflated appraisals Hess 14-15 Fraud
  16. 16. INSURANCE FRAUD Premium diversion by agents Workers compensation fraud HEALTH CARE FRAUD Throughout entire country Medicare and Medicaid the most visible programs affected Hess 14-16 Fraud
  17. 17. MASS MARKETING FRAUD False or deceptive representations to induce victims Advance fee-type payments to fraud perpetrators MAIL FRAUD Perpetuating scams through the mail Contact the postal inspector Hess 14-17 Fraud
  18. 18. COUNTERFEITING Identification documents Commercial counterfeiting CHECK FRAUD Stolen checks Fraudulent checks Forgery Hess 14-18 Fraud
  19. 19. DEBIT AND CREDIT CARD FRAUD Elements Possess a debit/credit card obtained by theft or fraud By which services or goods are obtained Unauthorized signing of the cardholders name Hess 14-19 Fraud
  20. 20. IDENTITY THEFT Unauthorized use or attempted use Credit card Existing accounts Personal information Any combination Hess 14-20 Fraud
  21. 21. OVERVIEW Illegal acts characterized by fraud Also called economic or corporate crime Perpetrators do not look like criminals Often highly educated, socially accepted people Few law enforcement agencies are equipped to investigate white-collar crime Hess 14-21 White-Collar Crime
  22. 22. CORPORATE FRAUD Highest priority of FBIs financial crimes section Falsification of financial information Many cases involve securities and commodities Enron scandal Hess 14-22 White-Collar Crime
  23. 23. MONEY LAUNDERING Two-pronged FBI approach Prong 1 Investigating underlying criminal activity Prong 2 Conducting parallel financial investigation Uncovering the financial infrastructure Discerning how it flows Hess 14-23 White-Collar Crime
  24. 24. EMBEZZLEMENT By a person to whom it has been entrusted Fraudulent appropriation ENVIRONMENTAL CRIME Numerous laws Often considered a civil matter Civil regulatory agencies Hess 14-24 White-Collar Crime
  25. 25. FACTORS Monetary value of the loss Amounts of these thresholds vary with the crime FBIs national security and criminal priorities INTERPOL Hess 14-25 A Final Note about Jurisdiction
  26. 26. Summary Larceny/theft is the unlawful taking, carrying, leading or driving away of property from anothers possession Larceny is synonymous with theft Fraud is intentional deception to cause a person to give up property or some lawful right Main problem in investigating environmental crimes is that they are often considered a civil matter Hess 14-26

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