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  • Chapter 12: Motivating Students

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Chapter 12 Objectives

    After completing chapter 12, students should be able to do the After completing chapter 12, students should be able to do the following:following:

    1. Describe the concept of motivation from the cognitive, stimulation, and reinforcement points of view, as well as explain the interrelationship between the three viewpoints.

    2. Identify examples of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. 3. Discuss student attitudes and needs and their motivational effect on

    learning. 4. Explain the possible effects of stimulus variation on learning as well as

    techniques for varying the stimuli in the teaching-learning environment.

    5. Define reinforcement and describe the different types of classroom reinforcement.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Chapter 12 Objectives—Continued

    6. Differentiate between the concepts of positive and negative reinforcement.

    7. Identify and discuss three techniques that can be used in providing feedback to students.

    8. Describe the characteristics of reward-mechanism systems and explain the advantages associated with their use.

    9. Describe common ways of identifying viable reinforcers for use with students.

    10. Describe contingency contracts and their appropriate classroom use.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation

    •• Motivation: Motivation: − Behavior that is Energized, Directed and

    Sustained.

    •• Two Types of Motivation:Two Types of Motivation: 1. Intrinsic: Cognitive Approach to Motivation. 2. Extrinsic: Reinforcement Approach to Motivation.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation— Continued

    Extrinsic/ Reinforcement

    Intrinsic/ Cognitive

    1. Internal

    2. Learner Brings to the Situation

    3. Essential

    1 External

    2. Environmental Factors

    3. Artificial

    •Motivation

    •Behavior

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation— Continued

    • Current Research Favors Establishing a Classroom Climate that Fosters an Intrinsic Motivation/ Desire to Learn.

    •• Stimulation Approach to MotivationStimulation Approach to Motivation − Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motives are Interrelated and will Interact. − Extrinsic/Environment Factors can be Used in Influencing

    Intrinsic/Internal Factors. • How Cognitive and Reinforcement Motivation Relate to Other

    Motivation Approaches −− Cognitive ApproachCognitive Approach to Motivation is Similar to Intrinsic Motivation

    because it is Concerned with Students’ Internal Thoughts and Beliefs and their Interaction with Motivation.

    −− Reinforcement ApproachReinforcement Approach to Motivation is Similar to Extrinsic Motivation Because It Relies on External Conditions.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Motivational Interactions

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    The Cognitive Approach to Motivation

    •• Overview:Overview: − Internal Perspective on Motivation. − Self-Motivated/Self-Directed. − Thoughts Guide Behavior. −Beliefs of Achievement and Success Drive the

    Behavior. − Stresses Goal Setting, Planning, and Monitoring

    Progress toward a Goal. −Can Control the Environment.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Cognitive Approach to Motivation— Continued

    The Next Several Slides Will Deal with the Following Elements of the Cognitive Approach Cognitive Approach to Motivation: to Motivation:

    − Students’ Attitude Toward Learning and Its Impact on Motivation.

    − Student Needs Using Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Its Impact on Motivation.

    −Natural Motives of Students and Its Impact on Motivation.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    The Cognitive Approach to Motivation—Continued

    •• StudentsStudents’’ Attitude: Attitude: − Predetermined Attitudes/Mind Sets Toward School/Life are Based on

    Prior Experiences. •• TeacherTeacher’’s Job Change Negative Attitudes Toward School:s Job Change Negative Attitudes Toward School:

    − Entice Students w/Innovative Instructional Practices. − Demonstrating School is Worthwhile—Utilize Guest Speakers

    w/High Status to Speak to Students. − Content Must be Relevant and Connect to Students’ Interests. − Involve Students in their Own Learning and Stimulate their Interests. − Provide for Choice and Input. − Teach w/Passion and Enthusiasm.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy

    1. Survival

    2. Safety

    3. Belonging

    4. Self-Esteem

    5. Intellectual Achievement

    6. Aesthetic Application

    7. Self-Actualization

    Deficiency NeedsLow

    Being NeedsHigh

    Student Cognitive Needs and Motivation

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy and Motivation in the Classroom

    The Maslow

    School

    1. Students’ Desire to Fulfill Fulfill Lower-Level Needs Might Interfere w/Achievement in Academic Subjects.

    • Students Might Break Rules to Maintain Self-Esteem within a Group.

    2. Teachers Should Create an Environment that is NurturingNurturing and Safe Safe so that Students Feel Secure to Share Opinions and Ideals.

    3. Students Should Feel that their Teachers CareCare for them and have High High ExpectationsExpectations——this will Motivate them Achieve and Take Risks.

    4.4. Differentiate InstructionDifferentiate Instruction so that All Children Experience Success.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    Natural Motives and the Cognitive Approach to Motivation

    • Teachers Should Harness/UtilizeHarness/Utilize the Following Student Natural Motives to Increase Motivation:

    − Curiosity. − Stimulated by Suspense. − Desire for Action, Adventure, and Interesting Experiences.

    − Games, Puzzles, and Simulations. • Select Activities Enable Students to Pursue Individual

    Interests and Desires. • Provide Incentives:Incentives: Honor Roll, Student of Week/Month,

    Mention the Accomplishments and Extra Time for Special Activity—Computer Time.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    The Stimulation Approach to Motivation

    • The Next Several Slides Will Deal with the Following Elements of the Stimulation Stimulation Approach to Motivation: Approach to Motivation:

    −Classroom Atmosphere. −Modeling. − Stimulating Interest. − Stimulus Variation. − Set Induction. −Motivational Methods/Techniques.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    The Stimulation Approach to Motivation—Continued

    1.1. Classroom Atmosphere Affects Motivation:Classroom Atmosphere Affects Motivation: − Attractive and Colorfully Decorated Classroom − Compelling Bulletin Boards and Displays. − Provide Students w/the Opportunity to Help

    Decorate the Room—Perhaps their Own Bulletin Board.

    − Seating Arrangement can Help Create Group Cohesiveness and Belonging.

    − Allow Students Occasionally to Rearrange their Own Seating.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    The Stimulation Approach to Motivation—Continued

    2.2. Modeling Affects Motivation: Modeling Affects Motivation: − Individuals with StatusStatus—People who Children Admire—

    Demonstrate with Actions the Values and Behaviors that Are Needed to Succeed.

    − Subtle Suggestions through NonverbalNonverbal Body Language are Effective.

    −− Role PlayRole Play Parts of the Lives of Admired People in the Classroom—this Might Help Students Develop Related Interests.

    − Utilize RespectedRespected Students as Role Models. −− Enthusiastic, PassionateEnthusiastic, Passionate Teachers can Affect both

    Achievement and Motivation.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    The Stimulation Approach to Motivation—Continued

    3.3. Stimulating Interest Affects Motivation:Stimulating Interest Affects Motivation: − Environment Rich in Stimuli. − Active Engagement in Learning. − Enthusiastic and Passionate Teacher. − Utilize Stimulus Variation:

    − Gestures. − Focusing Strategies. − Varied Interaction Styles. − Shifts in Sensory Channels. − Movement.

  • Effective Instructional Strategies Chapter 12: Motivating Students

    The Stimulation Approach to Motivation—Continued

    How Stimulus Variation Can Increase Motivation How Stimulus Variation Can Increase Motivation

    1. Gestures • Capture Capture and Focus Attention.Focus Attention.