Chapter 12: Air Section 1: What Causes Air Pollution?

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 12: Air Section 1: What Causes Air Pollution?
  • Slide 2
  • Objectives Name five primary air pollutants, and give sources for each. Name the two major sources of air pollution in urban areas. Describe the way in which smog forms. Explain the way in which a thermal inversion traps air pollution.
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  • What Causes Air Pollution? Air pollution is the contamination of the ___________ by wastes from sources such as industrial burning and _________ ___________. Substances that pollute the air can be in the form of solids, _______, or _______.
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  • What Causes Air Pollution? Most air pollution is the result of ______ activities, but some pollutants are ______, including dust, _____, spores, and sulfur dioxide from _______ _________.
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  • Primary and Secondary Pollutants A _________ __________ is a pollutant that is put directly into the atmosphere by human or natural activity. An example would be _____________.
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  • Primary and Secondary Pollutants A secondary pollutant is a pollutant that forms in the _________ by chemical reactions with primary air pollutants, natural components in the air, or both. An example would be ______________________. Ground level ozone forms when the emission from _____ reacts with the ___ rays of the ______ and then mix with the oxygen in the atmosphere.
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  • Primary Pollutants
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  • Sources of Primary Air Pollutants Household products, power plants, and motor vehicles are sources of primary pollutants such as carbon ________, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and chemicals called volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
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  • Sources of Primary Air Pollutants Vehicles and coal-burning power plants are the major sources of _______ _____ emissions. Power plants, refineries, and metal smelters contribute much of the sulfur dioxide emissions. ________ and gas stations make up most of the human- made emissions of VOCs.
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  • Sources of Primary Air Pollutants Particulate matter can also pollute the air and is usually divided into ____ and _____ particles. Fine particles enter the air from _______ burned by vehicles and coal-burning _____ _______.
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  • Sources of Primary Air Pollutants Sources of coarse particles are cement plants, _______ _______, incinerators, wood-burning __________, fields, and ________. See your textbook for a table of primary air pollutants.
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  • The History of Air Pollution Air pollution is not a new phenomenon. Whenever something burns, pollutants enter the air. In 1273, ______ ______ ordered that burning a particularly dirty kind of coal called _____ _____ was illegal.
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  • The History of Air Pollution The worlds air quality problem is much _______ today because modern industrial societies burn large amounts of ______ _______. Most air pollution in _______ areas comes from vehicles and industry.
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  • Motor Vehicle Emissions Almost _______ of our air pollution comes from gasoline burned by vehicles.
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  • Motor Vehicle Emissions According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Americans drove their vehicles over 2.6 ______ miles in 1998. Over 90 percent of that mileage was driven by passenger vehicles. The rest was driven by _______ and ______.
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  • Controlling Vehicle Emissions The Clean Air Act, passed in 1970 and strengthened in 1990, gives the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate _________ ________ in the United States.
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  • Controlling Vehicle Emissions The EPA required the gradual elimination of ____ in gasoline, decreasing lead pollution by ______ _____ ____ percent in the United States. In addition, ________ ________, required in all automobiles, _______ exhaust gases of pollutants ________ pollutants are able to exit the tail pipe.
  • Slide 18
  • California Zero-Emission Vehicle Program In ____, the California Air Resources Board established the _____ _____ ______ (ZEV) program. Zero-emission vehicles are vehicles that have no tailpipe emissions, no emissions from ________, and no emission-control systems that deteriorate over time.
  • Slide 19
  • California Zero-Emission Vehicle Program By 2016, ___ percent of all vehicles sold in California are required to be zero-emission vehicles, including SUVs and ______. Currently, ZEVs such as ______ vehicles are for sale in California, and vehicles with advanced batteries are being demonstrated.
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  • California Zero-Emission Vehicle Program Vehicles powered by ____ ____ are being developed and will qualify as ZEVs.
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  • California Zero-Emission Vehicle Program ______ _____-_______ vehicles, including hybrid- electric cars, are also included in the program. ZEV programs have also been adopted by _____, Massachusetts, _______, and Vermont.
  • Slide 22
  • Industrial Air Pollution Many industries and _____ ______ that generate our electricity must burn _____, usually _____ _____, to get the energy they need.
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  • Industrial Air Pollution Burning fossil fuels releases huge quantities of _____ _____ and _____ _______ into the air. Power plants that produce electricity emit at least ____-_____ of all sulfur dioxide and more than one-third of all nitrogen oxides that pollute the air.
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  • Industrial Air Pollution Some industries also produce _____, which are chemical compounds that form ______ ______. ____ _______, oil refineries, chemical manufacturing plants, ______ ______, and automobile repair shops all contribute to the VOCs in the air.
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  • Regulating Air Pollution From Industry The ____ ____ ____ requires many industries to use or other pollution- control devices.
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  • Regulating Air Pollution From Industry Scrubbers remove some of the more harmful substances that would otherwise pollute the air. A scrubber is a machine that moves gases through a ______ of ______ that _______ many pollutants. _______ is an example of a pollutant gas that can be removed from the air by a scrubber.
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  • Regulating Air Pollution From Industry
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  • ______ _______ are machines used in cement factories and coal-burning power plants to remove ____ _______ from smokestacks.
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  • Regulating Air Pollution From Industry In an electrostatic precipitator, _____ containing dust particles is blown through a chamber containing an ______ _______. An electric ______ is transferred to the ____ _______, causing them to ____ together and to the sides of the chamber.
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  • Regulating Air Pollution From Industry The clean gas is ________ from the chamber and the concentrated dust particles can then be collected and removed. Electrostatic precipitators remove ___ ________ tons of ____ generated by coal- burning power plants from the air each year in the ______ ______.
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  • Smog
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  • Temperature Inversions The ________ of air in the atmosphere usually keeps air pollution from reaching __________ levels.
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  • Temperature Inversions During the day, the sun heats the ______ of ____ ______ and the ___ near the Earth. The warm air rises through the cooler air above it and carries pollutants away from the ground, and into the atmosphere.
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  • Temperature Inversions Sometimes, however, pollution is trapped ____ the Earths surface by a temperature inversion. A _______ ________ is the atmospheric condition in which _____ air traps _____ air near Earths surface.
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  • Temperature Inversions The warmer air above keeps the cooler air at the surface from ______ ______. So, pollutants are _________ below with the cooler air.
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  • Temperature Inversions
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  • If a ____ is located in a ______, it has a ______ chance of experiencing temperature inversions. ____ ________, surrounded on ___ sides by _______, often has temperature inversions.
  • Slide 38
  • End of section 1 Write a summary of the section notes for tomorrows class.


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