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CHAPTER 11.1. GENES ARE MADE OF DNA. What is in your GENES?. No not that kind! These kind of genes!. GRIFFITH S TRANSFORMING FACTOR IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL. Frederick Griffith proved that a substance in one strain of bacteria causes a change in another strain. FIGURE 11.1. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • CHAPTER 11.1GENES ARE MADE OF DNA

  • What is in your GENES?No not that kind!

    These kind of genes!

  • GRIFFITHS TRANSFORMING FACTOR IS THE GENETIC MATERIALFrederick Griffith proved that a substance in one strain of bacteria causes a change in another strain

  • FIGURE 11.1

  • AVERY SHOWS DNA IS THE TRANSFORMING FACTOROswald Avery, Alfred Hershey, and Martha Chase took Griffiths experiment one step further Did experiments with viruses Concluded that DNA is the genetic material of the cell

  • VIRUS EXPERIMENTS PROVIDE MORE EVIDENCEA virus consists of a package of nucleic acid in a protein coatBacteriophage- a virus that infect bacteria

  • VIRUS

  • Figure 11-4

  • DNAS STRUCTURE1950 Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins produced photographs of DNA using x-ray crystallography

  • Erwin Chargaff- 1952Observed that the number of adenine equals the number of thymine .Observed that the number of guanine equals the number of cytosine.

  • DOUBLE HELIXIn 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick looked at the photographs and with Chargaffs discovery gave DNA a shape of a double helix

  • DOUBLE HELIXDouble Helix- twisting shapeHypothesized that the strands were connected by hydrogen bonds

  • CLASS WORKMake a list of at least four of the scientists we discussed today and discuss their contribution to the discovery of DNA.

  • CHAPTER 11.2NUCLEIC ACIDS STORE INFORMATION IN THEIR SEQUENCE OF CHEMICAL UNITS

  • THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF DNADNA- deoxyribonucleic acid, heritable genetic information of an organismPolymer built from monomersNucleotides- monomers of DNA, building blocks, contain three parts

  • NUCLEOTIDES1) A ring shaped sugar called deoxyribose2) A phosphate group3) A nitrogenous base

  • NITROGENOUS BASEDivided into two groupsPyrimidines- single ring structuresPurines- double ring structures

  • DNA STRANDSNucleotides are joined together by covalent bonds between the sugar and phosphate

  • COMPLEMENTARY BASE PAIRSAdenine (A) bonds to Thymine (T)Guanine (G) bonds to Cytosine (C)EXAMPLE:AAT GCT ATGTTA CGA TAC

  • PRACTICE1) AAT GGC TAT2) CAT GAT TAC3) CCG TTA CCA4) GCG ATA GAC5) CAG TCA GCA

  • THE TEMPLATE MECHANISMWhen a cell divides a complete new set of genetic instructions is made

  • THE TEMPLATE MECHANISMDNA Replication- the process of copying the DNA molecule

  • Enzymes Involved in ReplicationDNA Helicase- unzips DNA, breaks the Hydrogen bonds between the base pairs in order to create origin of replication

  • REPLICATION OF THE DOUBLE HELIXDNA Polymerase- makes the covalent bonds between the nucleotides

  • Class Work1. Describe how DNA replicates by using a template. 2. List the steps involved in DNA replication. 3. Under what circumstances is DNA replicated?

  • Class Work1. What are the three parts of a nucleotide? Which parts make up the backbone of a DNA strand? 2. List the two base pairs found in DNA. 3. If six bases on one strand of a DNA double helix are AGTCGG, what are the six bases on the complementary section of the other strand of DNA?

  • THE TEMPLATE MECHANISMWhen a cell divides a complete new set of genetic instructions is made

  • THE TEMPLATE MECHANISMDNA Replication- the process of copying the DNA molecule

  • REPLICATION OF THE DOUBLE HELIXDNA Polymerase- makes the covalent bonds between the nucleotides

  • Class Work1. Describe how DNA replicates by using a template. 2. List the steps involved in DNA replication. 3. Under what circumstances is DNA replicated?

  • CHAPTER 11.4 and 11.5 A GENE PROVIDES THE INFORMATION FOR MAKING A SPECIFIC PROTEIN

  • ONE GENE, ONE POLYPEPTIDE- Dont need to writeGeorge Beadle and Edward Tatum worked with the bread mold neurospora crassa

  • ONE GENE, ONE POLYPEPTIDE- Dont need to writeOne Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis- the function of an individual gene is to dictate the production of a specific enzymeNowONE GENE-ONE POLYPEPTIDE HYPOTHESIS

  • INFORMATION FLOW: DNA TO RNA TO PROTEINRNA- ribonucleic acid, has a sugar or ribose, base uracil, single stranded

  • INFORMATION FLOW: DNA TO RNA TO PROTEINDNADeoxyriboseThymineDouble-StrandedRNARiboseUracilSingle Stranded

  • INFORMATION FLOW: DNA TO RNA TO PROTEIN

  • INFORMATION FLOW: DNA TO RNA TO PROTEINTranscription- when DNA is converted into single stranded mRNA, in nucleusmRNA moves to cytoplasm while DNA stays in the nucleus

  • INFORMATION FLOW: DNA TO RNA TO PROTEINTranslation- the nucleic acid information (RNA) is converted into amino acids, in cytoplasmCodon- a three-base word that codes for one amino acidSeveral codons form a polypeptide

  • TRANSLATION: RNA TO PROTEINTransfer RNA- translates the 3 letter codon of mRNA into an amino acid

  • TRANSLATION: RNA TO PROTEINAnticodon- a triplet of bases that is complementary to a specific mRNA sequence

  • THE TRIPLET CODEMarshall Nirenberg figured out that the codon UUU makes the amino acid phenylalanine

  • CHANGE THE DNA to mRNA1. TAT CAT GAT2. CCA GGG CTA3. TAC TAG TTC4. GCA ATA TTC5. GCA ATG CCT

    PAGE 12 CLASSWORK/HW

  • CLASS WORK1. How did Beadle and Tatum's research result in the "one geneone polypeptide" hypothesis? 2. Which molecule completes the flow of information from DNA to protein? 3. Which amino acid is coded for by the RNA sequence CUA? 4. List two ways RNA is different from DNA.

  • CHAPTER 11.5THERE ARE TWO MAIN STEPS FROM GENE TO PROTEIN

  • TRANSCRIPTION: DNA TO RNA3 types of RNAMessenger RNA (mRNA)Transfer RNA (tRNA)Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)Messenger RNA- an RNA molecule which is transcribed (COPIED) from a DNA templateRNA Polymerase- links the RNA nucleotides together

  • EDITING THE RNA MESSAGEIntron- non-coding regions of DNAExon- parts of a gene that will be translated or expressedRNA Splicing- when the introns are removed from the RNA before it moves to the cytoplasm

  • TRANSLATION: RNA TO PROTEINTransfer RNA- translates the 3 letter codon of mRNA into an amino acid

  • TRANSLATION: RNA TO PROTEINAnticodon- a triplet of bases that is complementary to a specific RNA sequenceRibosomal RNA- located in the ribosome

  • CLASS WORK1. What kind of nucleic acid is made during transcription? 2. How do introns and exons relate to RNA splicing? 3. List the three RNA types involved in transcription and translation, and describe the role of each. 4. Briefly describe the steps of protein synthesis.

  • CHAPTER 11.6MUTATIONS CAN CHANGE THE MEANING OF GENES

  • HOW MUTATIONS AFFECT GENESMutation- any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNATwo typesBase SubstitutionBase Insertion/Deletion

  • WHAT CAUSES MUTATIONS?Errors in DNA replicationMutagens- physical or chemical agents that cause mutationsX-raysUV LightSmokingMutations can be harmful or beneficial

  • CLASS WORK1. Explain why a base substitution is often less harmful than a base deletion or insertion.2. Describe how a mutation could be helpful rather than harmful.3. Give an example of a mutagen.

    PAGE 13 in Packet

    Stopped here*Muscular hypertrophy- double muscles*