Chapter 11: The Evolution of Populations

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Chapter 11: The Evolution of Populations. Warm-Up: PG. 339. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 11: The Evolution of Populations

Chapter 11: The Evolution of Populations

Warm-Up: PG. 339The graph at the right shows sexual selection patterns in guppies. Three experiments were run to determine if female guppies prefer males with specific tail sizes. In each experiment, female guppies were given the choice of two males to mate with, each having a different tail size: large vs. small, large vs. medium, and medium vs. small.

Warm-Up Questions Analyze what tail sizes were compared in each experiment. Analyze the relationship between tail size in male guppies and female preference for mates.Infer why the difference in preference is larger in experiment 1 than in experiment 2.

Objectives: Students will be able to describe how natural selection acts on the distribution of traits in a population. Students will be able to explain the three way natural selection can change the distribution in a populationStudents will be able to identify the five factors that influence evolution. Review of Concepts: In order to have different phenotypes a population must have ____________________.A gene pool is the ____________________________of all the individuals in a population.The two types of sexual selection are ____________________ and _____________________.

Review of Concepts Allele frequency is a measure of how common a certain allele is in a population. It can be expressed as the ratio of one allele to the total number of alleles for that gene in a gene pool. In a population an allele is present that codes for the presence of freckles. Freckles are a dominant trait represented by F. Calculate the allele frequency for F if 5 people are homozygous dominant, 4 people are heterozygous, and 7 people are homozygous recessive. What is the allele frequency for f?

Review of Concepts:Changes in allele frequencies due to chance are known as ______________________.The three sources of genetic variation are:1.2.3.

Key Concept Populations, not individuals, evolve.

Stop and ThinkHow would you describe a persons appearance?

Natural Selection acts on distributions of traits When a frequency is highest towards the mean value and decreases towards each extreme, it is called a normal distribution. A normal distribution will produce a bell shaped curve when graphed. In a normal distribution, all of the possible phenotypes have an equal chance of survival. Natural Selection acts on distributions of traits

The most common phenotypes are generally found in the center of the distribution. Less common phenotypes are found near the outer extremes. Natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in one of three ways Microevolution: the observable change in allele frequencies of a population over time. One process that can lead to microevolution is natural selection What is natural selection?

Natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in one of three ways Directional Selection This is a type of selection that favors phenotypes at one extreme of a traits range. Causes a shift in the phenotypic distribution of a population. A phenotype that once was rare, becomes the most present. The mean will shift in the direction of the more favorable phenotype. Natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in one of three ways Directional Selection

Natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in one of three ways Stabilizing SelectionThe intermediate phenotype is favored and becomes more common in a population. Increases the number of individuals with intermediate phenotypes. The genetic diversity of a population declines with stabilizing selection. Natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in one of three ways Stabilizing Selection

Natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in one of three ways Disruptive SelectionDisruptive selection occurs when both of the extreme phenotypes are favored. Individuals with the intermediate phenotype are selected against by nature. Natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in one of three ways Disruptive Selection

Posted Note Activity Each student will be given a sticky note. On this note, the student will right down his/her approximate height. The data collected will be graphed and we will be able to determine the distribution that is present within the class.

There are five factors that can lead to evolutionPopulations evolve in response to their environments. There are five different factors that can lead to evolution Genetic Drift Gene Flow MutationSexual Selection Natural Selection There are five factors that can lead to evolutionGenetic Drift

There are five factors that can lead to evolutionGene Flow

There are five factors that can lead to evolutionMutation

There are five factors that can lead to evolutionSexual Selection

There are five factors that can lead to evolutionNatural Selection

Evolution is continuous In nature populations evolve:Expected in all populations most of the time Respond to changing environments

ReflectionDescribe how natural selection acts on the distribution of traits in a population.Explain three ways that natural selection can change the distribution of a trait in a population.