Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 11–2 QUESTION

Download Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 11–2 QUESTION

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions Slide 2 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 112 QUESTION Slide 3 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 113 ANSWER ) 1)5.47 m Section11.1Solution Composition(p. 485 Using the density, the mass of the solution is found. Dont forget that molality has units of kg of solvent and the mass of the solute must be subtracted from the calculated mass of solution. Slide 4 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 114 QUESTION Slide 5 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 115 ANSWER 3)3.3 mL Section 4.3 The Composition of Solutions (p. 133) Use the dilution equation remembering that M is mol/L not mol/mL. Slide 6 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 116 QUESTION Slide 7 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 117 ANSWER 4)Molarity Section 11.1 Solution Composition (p. 485) Molarity is moles per liter of solution. The volume of a solution is temperature dependent. Generally, a solution will increase in volume as temperature increases. Slide 8 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 118 ANSWER (continued) Slide 9 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 119 QUESTION Slide 10 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1110 ANSWER ) 3)0.800 Section11.1Solution Composition(p. 485 Remember to convert grams to moles before attempting to find the mole fraction. Slide 11 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1111 QUESTION Slide 12 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1112 ANSWER 4)All of these Section 11.2 The Energies of Solution Formation (p. 488) Nonpolar compounds will have little attraction to ions and will be poor solvents for ionic compounds. Slide 13 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1113 QUESTION Slide 14 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1114 ANSWER T 1)he evaporation of water Section 11.2 The Energies of Solution Formation (p. 488) Endo meaning in or inside indicates that endothermic is the flow of heat into a system. Slide 15 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1115 QUESTION Slide 16 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1116 QUESTION (continued) Slide 17 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1117 ANSWER ) - 5)Hydrogen bonding arises from the dipole moment created by the unequal sharing of electrons within certain covalent bonds within a molecule. Section11.3Factors Affecting Solubility(p. 492 Hydrogen bonding is a dipoledipole interaction, but one of such magnitude that it receives its own classification. Slide 18 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1118 QUESTION Slide 19 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1119 ANSWER ) 3)694 Section11.2The Energies of Solution Formation (p. 488 The hydration energy is needed to overcome the lattice energy, breaking the ionic bonds to loosen the ions in the crystal. Slide 20 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1120 QUESTION Slide 21 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1121 ANSWER ) 5)none of these Section11.3Factors Affecting Solubility(p. 492 Henrys law states that the amount of a gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution. Slide 22 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1122 QUESTION Slide 23 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1123 ANSWER ) 2)decreases over time. Section11.4The Vapor Pressures of Solutions (p. 497 The concentration of the solution increases as the water evaporates. The higher the concentration of salt, the lower the vapor pressure. Slide 24 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1124 QUESTION Slide 25 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1125 QUESTION (continued) Slide 26 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1126 ANSWER 5)molecules of A interact more strongly with B than A with A or B with B. Section 11.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions (p. 497) Raoults Law depends on solutions being ideal, that is, the molecules of A and molecules of B do not interact. Many solutions have near ideal behavior, but the solute(s) and solvent of every solution interact to some degree. Slide 27 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1127 QUESTION Slide 28 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1128 QUESTION (continued) Slide 29 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1129 ANSWER = 3)b, c Section 11.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions (p. 497) PVnRT applies only to gases. Slide 30 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1130 QUESTION Slide 31 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1131 ANSWER. - - 4)density elevation Section 11.5 BoilingPoint Elevation and FreezingPoint Depression (p. 504) Density elevation is not a term in common chemical use. Slide 32 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1132 QUESTION Slide 33 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1133 QUESTION (continued) Slide 34 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1134 ANSWER -- 4)While adding the solute, some was spilled on the lab bench. Section 11.5 BoilingPoint Elevation and Freezing Point Depression (p. 504) Aside from the possible health hazards, spilling chemicals in the lab will generally be disastrous to any quantitative experiment. Slide 35 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1135 QUESTION Slide 36 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1136 QUESTION (continued) Slide 37 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1137 ANSWER -- 2)the solute particles lower the solvents vapor pressure, thus requiring a higher temperature to cause boiling. Section 11.5 BoilingPoint Elevation and Freezing Point Depression (p. 504) At the molecular level, solute molecules at the surface interfere with solvent molecules trying to reach the vapor phase. Extra energy is needed to escape. Slide 38 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1138 QUESTION Slide 39 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1139 ANSWER ) 1)Water will flow from the cucumber to the solution. Section11.6Osmotic Pressure(p. 508 Water from the cucumber flows out in an attempt to bring the concentrations of ions to the same level inside and outside of the cucumber. Slide 40 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1140 QUESTION Slide 41 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1141 ANSWER 2) isotonic Section11.6Osmotic Pressure(p. 508) Organisms attempt to keep their cells and their surroundings in an isotonic state. This state is the most beneficial to cell function. Slide 42 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1142 QUESTION Slide 43 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.CRS Question, 1143 ANSWER ) 5)electrostatic repulsion Section11.8Colloids(p. 514 The electrostatic repulsion arises from the layers of ions that form around the colloidal particles. </p>