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Chapter 10 Section 5. What is the Ecosystem Approach to Sustaining Biodiversity?. Key Concepts. We can help sustain biodiversity by identifying severely threatened areas and protecting those with high plant biodiversity and those where ecosystem services are being impaired - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 10 Section 5

Chapter 10 Section 5What is the Ecosystem Approach to Sustaining Biodiversity?Key ConceptsWe can help sustain biodiversity by identifying severely threatened areas and protecting those with high plant biodiversity and those where ecosystem services are being impairedSustaining biodiversity will require a global effort to rehabilitate and restore damaged ecosystemsHumans dominate most of the earths land, and preserving biodiversity will require sharing as much as possible with other species Four Point Strategy to Protect EcosystemsMap global ecosystems and create an inventory of the species contained in each of them and the ecosystem services they provide.Locate and protect the most endangered ecosystems and species, with emphasis on protecting plant biodiversity and ecosystem services.Seek to restore as many degraded ecosystems as possible.Make development biodiversity-friendly by providing significant financial incentives and technical help to private landowners who agree to help protect endangered ecosystems.

Protecting Global Biodiversity HotspotsBiodiversity Hotspots- areas especially rich in plant species that are found nowhere else and are in great danger of extinction. These areas suffer serious ecological disruption, mostly because of human population growth. In an effort to protect as much of the earths biodiversity as possible, some conservation biologists have urged a emergency action strategy be put into place to identify and protect these hotspots.In 34 global areas , a total of 86% of the habitat has been destroyed. These hotspots cover only a little more than 2% of the earths surface, but they contain about 50% of the worlds flowering plant species and 42% of all terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians) Case Study- A Biodiversity Hotspot in East Africa, Pg.240 Top 6 HotspotsHawaiiSan Francisco Bay areaSouthern AppalachiansDeath ValleySouthern CaliforniaFlorida Panhandle

Protecting Ecosystem ServicesAnother way to help sustain the earths biodiversity and its people is to identify and protect areas where vital economic services are being impaired.A study in 2005 pointed out that human activities are degrading or overusing about 62% of the earths natural services in various ecosystems around the world.It is vital to protect reserves and wilderness areas and to protect highly endangered biodiversity hotspots.Analysts argue that we must also identify highly stressed life raft ecosystems- areas where people live in severe poverty and their economic services are being degraded at a very quick rate. Rehabilitating and Restoring EcosystemsMuch of the harm we have inflicted on nature is at least partially reversible through ecological restoration, which is the process of repairing damage caused by humans to the biodiversity and dynamics of natural ecosystems. Replanting forestsRestoring GrasslandsReintroducing native species

Rehabilitating and Restoring EcosystemsThese are four ways to help speed up repair operationsRestoration- returning a particular degrades habitat or ecosystem to a condition as similar to its natural state.Rehabilitation- turning a degraded ecosystem into a functional or useful ecosystem without trying to restore it to its original condition. Ex: Removing pollutants and replanting to reduce soil erosion.Replacement- replacing a degraded ecosystem with another type of ecosystem. Ex: Tree plantation replaces a degraded forest.Creating artificial ecosystems- For example, creating artificial wetlands to help reduce flooding or to treat sewage.Rehabilitating and Restoring EcosystemsFour point strategy for carrying out most forms of ecological restoration and rehabilitation.Identify what caused the degradation (Pollution, farming, overgrazing)Stop the abuse by eliminating or sharply reducing factors that are inflicting harm. Ex: Removing toxic soil pollutants and removing nonnative species.If necessary, reintroduce species to help restore natural ecological processes, especially pioneer, keystone and foundation species. Protect the area from further degradation.

Ex: Tall grass prairies in the United StatesWill Restoration Encourage Further Destruction?Some analysts worry that ecological restoration could encourage continuing environmental destruction and degradation by suggesting that any harm we do to the environment can simply be undone.Restoration ecologists disagree stating that preventing ecosystem damage in the first place is cheaper and more effective than ecological restoration.Restoration should not be used as an excuse for environmental destructionWe Can Share Areas We Dominate with Other SpeciesEcologist Michael L. Rosenzweig developed a new form of conservation biology called reconciliation or applied ecology.This science focuses on inventing, establishing, and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live, work, or play. We need to learn how to share with other species some of the spaces we dominate. Implementing reconciliation ecology will involve the growing practice of community based conservation, in which conservation biologists work with people to help them protect biodiversity in their local communities. Ex: In Belize a local sanctuary for the Black Howler monkey has been established with the help of local farmers. Case Study: The Blackfoot Challenge- Reconciliation Ecology in Action, Pg.244What Can You Do?Here are some ways in which you can help sustain the earths biodiversityAdopt a forestPlant trees and take care of themRecycle paper and buy recycled paper productsChoose wood substitutes such as bamboo furniture and recycled plastic outdoor furniture, decking and fencingHelp to restore a nearby degraded forest or grassland Landscape your yard with a diversity of plants natural to the area