chapter 10 – motivating employees and creating self-managed teams

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Chapter 10 – Chapter 10 – Motivating Employees Motivating Employees and Creating Self- and Creating Self- Managed Teams Managed Teams

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  • Chapter 10 Motivating Employees and Creating Self-Managed Teams

  • Chapter 10 Learning GoalsWhat are the basic principles of Frederick Taylors concept of scientific management?What did Elton Mayos Hawthorne studies reveal about worker motivation?What is Maslows hierarchy of needs, and how do these needs relate to motivation?How are McGregors Theories X and Y used to explain worker motivation?What are the basic components of Herzbergs motivator-hygiene theory?

  • Chapter 10 Learning Goals (contd.)

    What three contemporary theories on employee motivation offer insights into improving employee performance?How can managers redesign existing jobs to increase employee motivation and performance?What different types of teams are being used in organizations today?What initiatives are organizations using today to motivate and retain employees?

  • Motivating EmployeesEmployees are a firms most important resource but also most difficult to manageSo, how can managers create a workplace that motivates employees and allows them to perform at their best?

  • Evolution of Motivation Theory1. Scientific Management2. Hawthorne Studies3. Hierarchy of Needs4. Theories X and Y5. Motivator-Hygiene Theory

  • Scientific ManagementDesigned by Fredrick TaylorAssumes all people are motivated by economic meansBased on 4 principlesDevelop a scientific approach to each job elementScientifically select, train, teach, & develop employeesEncourage cooperation between workers & managersDivide work among workers & managers based on who is best suited for it

  • The Hawthorne StudiesExperimented with job design, length of work day and week, break times, and incentivesHawthorne EffectSocial needs also play an important role in employee motivation

  • Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsBased on universal human needsIndividuals act to meet their unmet needsManagers try to create workplace that will increase the likelihood that employees will meet all of their needsIf appealing to an already met need, its hard to motivate an employee

  • Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsPhysiological needsSafety needsSocial needsEsteemneedsSelf-actualization needs

  • McGregors Theories X and Y2 contrasting sets of assumptions about human natureTheory X pessimisticTheory Y optimisticA managers view of human nature affects the way they motivate and manage employeesMcGregor believed Theory Y explained most employees

  • Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene TheoryWhat do people really want from their work experience?Motivating factors create job satisfactionHygiene factors create job dissatisfactionProper management of hygiene factors can prevent dissatisfaction but cannot provide motivationManagement needs to focus on job satisfiers

  • Contemporary Views of MotivationExpectancy Theory

    Equity Theory

    Goal Setting Theory

  • Expectancy TheoryHow motivated an employee is depends onThe link between effort & performanceThe link between performance & outcomeThe link between outcomes & individual needs

  • Equity TheoryBased on employees perception of how fairly they are being treated and the rewards they are receivingOutcomes-to-inputs ratio is compared toPast experience within the companyPast experience outside the companyOthers experience within the companyOthers experience outside the company

  • Equity Theory, cont.Upward social comparison: comparing oneself to another who is better off on a particular attribute frequently results in decreased satisfactionDownward social comparison: comparing oneself to another who is worse off on a particular attribute frequently results in increased satisfaction

  • Equity Theory, cont.If employees perceive an inequity they will take action

    Managers need to understand employees perceptions and reduce concerns of inequity

  • Goal Setting TheoryWorking toward a goal is primary source of motivation3 componentsSpecific goalsDifficult goalsFeedbackAllow employees to participate in goal setting process

  • Applying Motivational TheoryJob DesignJob enlargementJob enrichmentJob rotation or cross trainingWork ScheduleCompressed work weekFlextimeJob sharingTelecommuting

  • Applying Motivational Theory, cont.Recognition, Empowerment, & Economic IncentivesFormal recognitionEmployee empowermentMonetary incentivesVariable pay

  • Using TeamsGroup BehaviorSocializationGroup cohesivenessInterpersonal cohesiveness: strong bonds & liking between peopleTask cohesiveness: strong commitment to the group task among membersCohesiveness can increase team performance, but interpersonally cohesive teams may lack task focusSource: Kenrick et al., Social Psychology, p. 441.

  • Pros and Cons of TeamsCons:take longer to reach solutionmembers may suppress disagreementgroup may be dominated by a few individualslack of accountability

    Pros:more information & knowledgecan generate more alternativesoften higher-quality decisionsgroup participation increases acceptance of solutions

  • Using Teams, cont.Work Groups vs- Work TeamsWork teams create synergyTypes of teamsProblem solvingSelf managedCross functionalVirtual

  • Building Blocks of High Performance Teams1. Skills of team members

    2. Accountability

    3. Commitment

    Problem solvingTechnical/functionalInterpersonalSmall number of membersMutual accountabilityIndividual accountabilitySpecific goalsCommon approachMeaningful purpose

  • Trends in MotivationEducation & Training OpportunitiesGives employees feelings of competence and self-worthEmployee OwnershipGives employees feelings of responsibility for performanceWork-Life BenefitsEmployees have less stress & are more focused and productive

  • ReviewMotivation TheoriesApplying Motivational TheoriesJob DesignWork Schedule OptionsRecognition, empowerment, economic incentivesTeamsGroups vs TeamsTypes of TeamsHigh performance teamsTrendsLooking Ahead: Exam 4

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