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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 10 Motivating and Satisfying Employees and Teams
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 2 Learning Objectives 1.Explain what motivation is. 2.Understand some major historical perspectives on motivation. 3.Describe three contemporary views of motivation: equity theory, expectancy theory, and goal-setting theory. 4.Explain several techniques for increasing employee motivation. 5.Understand the types, development, and uses of teams.
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 3 Motivation the individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; the personal force that causes you or me to behave in a particular way.
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 4 Morale an employees feelings about his or her job and superiors and about the firm itself.
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 5 Scientific Management the application of scientific principles to management of work and workers.
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  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 6 Frederick W. Taylor Soldiering: productivity levels Job broken into tasks Management should determine Best way to perform tasks Job output to expect Management should also Choose the best person Train the best person Cooperate with workers
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 7 Piece-Rate System F.W. Taylor People work only to earn money Piece-rate = people paid a certain amount for each unit of output they produce
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 8 Figure 10.1: Taylors Piece-Rate System
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 9 Hawthorne Studies Western Electric: 1927, 1932 Determine effects of work environment on productivity Experiments Varied light level Pressure to produce higher output Human factors Beginning of Human Relations movement
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 10 Figure 10.2: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 11 Understanding Maslows Hierarchy Physiological = survival Safety = physical/emotional security Social = love/affection and sense of belonging Esteem = respect/recognition; sense of accomplishment and worth Self-actualization = growth/development to become all capable of being
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 12 Frederick Herzberg Interviews, 1950s Motivation-hygiene theory: satisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate and distinct dimensions Factors of motivation create satisfaction Factors of hygiene reduce dissatisfaction
  • Slide 13
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 13 Figure 10.3: Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory
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  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 14 Douglas McGregor Theory X Assumes employees dislike work and will function only in a highly controlled work environment Theory Y Assumes employees accept responsibility and work toward organizational goals if they achieve personal rewards
  • Slide 15
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 15 Theory X 1.People dislike work and try to avoid it. 2.Managers must coerce, control, and threaten employees to achieve organizational goals. 3.People must be led because they have little ambition and will not seek responsibility; they are concerned mainly with security.
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 16 Theory Y 1.Work is important in peoples lives. 2.People will work toward goals to which they are committed. 3.People commit to goals when accomplishing them will bring personal rewards. 4.People seek out responsibility. 5.Employees have potential to accomplish goals. 6.Organizations do not make full use of human resources.
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 17 Table 10.1: Theory X & Theory Y Contrasted
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  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 18 Ouchis Theory Z Lifetime employment Group decision making Group responsibility for outcomes Implied control Non-specialization Holistic concern Short-term employment Individual decision making Individual responsibility Rapid evaluation & promotion Explicit control Specialization Segmented concern Type J JapanType A America
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 19 Implications of Theory Z the belief that some middle ground betweentype A and type J is best for American business.
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 20 Type Z Organizations Blend of J and A Emphasis on long-term employment Collective decision making Individual responsibility for outcomes Slow evaluation and promotion Informal control along with some formalized measures Moderate specialization Holistic concern
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 21 Figure 10.4: The Features of Theory Z
  • Slide 22
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 22 Reinforcement Theory based on premise that behavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that is punished is less likely to recur.
  • Slide 23
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 23 Reinforcement Action follows from particular behavior Positive: strengthen desired behavior by providing a reward Negative: strengthen desired behavior by eliminating undesirable situation Punishment: create undesired consequence of undesirable behavior Extinction: eliminate undesirable behavior by not responding
  • Slide 24
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 24 Contemporary Motivation Theories Equity: people are motivated to obtain/preserve equitable treatment for themselves Inputs Outcomes Expectancy: motivation depends on how much want something and how likely to get it Goal-Setting: employees motivated to achieve goals they and managers set
  • Slide 25
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 25 Equity Theory Outcomes (self) Inputs (self) Outcomes (self) Inputs (self) Outcomes (other) Inputs (other) Outcomes (other) Inputs (other) compared with
  • Slide 26
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 26 Responses to Perceptions of Equity and Inequity Source: Organizational Behavior, Ninth Edition by Ricky W. Griffin and Gregory Moorhead. Copyright 2010 by South-Western / Cengage Learning. Used with permission.
  • Slide 27
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 27 Figure 10.5: Expectancy Theory
  • Slide 28
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 28 Management by Objectives (MBO) managers and employees collaborate in setting goals.
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  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 29 MBO Steps
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  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 30 Provides employee with more variety and responsibility in job Job enlargement: expanding a workers assignments to include additional but similar tasks Job design: restructuring work to cultivate worker-job match Job Enrichment
  • Slide 31
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 31 Behavior Modification systematic program of reinforcement to encourage desirable behavior involves rewardsand punishments
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  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 32 Flextime a system in which employees set their own work hours within employer-determined limits.
  • Slide 33
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 33 Two Examples of Flexible and Core Time Sources: Management, Ninth Edition by Robert Kreitner. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Company and Organizational Behavior, by Ricky W. Griffin and Gregory Moorhead. Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Company. Used with permission.
  • Slide 34
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 34 Part-Time and Job Sharing Part-time Works less than a standard work week Job sharing Two people share one full-time position
  • Slide 35
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 35 Telecommuting working at home all the time or a portion of the work week.
  • Slide 36
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 36 Employee Empowerment making employees more involved in their jobs by increasing their participation in decision making.
  • Slide 37
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 37 Employee Ownership a situation in which employees own the company they work for by virtue of being stockholders.
  • Slide 38
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 38 Estimated Number of Employee Ownership Plans The National Center for Employee Ownership, A Statistical Profile of Employee Ownership, July 2006, http://www.nceo.org/library/eo_stat.html. http://www.nceo.org/library/eo_stat.html
  • Slide 39
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 39 Team a group of workers functioning together as a unit to complete a common goal or purpose.
  • Slide 40
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 40 Types of Teams Problem-Solving Knowledgeable employees brought together to tackle a specific problem Virtuoso Exceptionally skilled and talented individuals brought together to produce significant change Self-Managed Group of employees with authority/skills to manage selves
  • Slide 41
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 41 Figure 10.6: Advantages/Disadvantages of Self-Managed Teams
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  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 42 Types of Teams Cross-functional Individuals with varying specialties, expertise, skills brought together to achieve a common task Virtual Members geographically dispersed but communicate electronically
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  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 43 Figure 10.7: Stages of Team Development
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  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 44 Roles Within a Team Task Specialist: pushes forward toward goals and places the objective first Socioemotional: supports and encourages the emotional needs of other members Dual: focuses on both the task and the team Nonparticipant: does not contribute
  • Slide 45
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 45 Team Cohesiveness members get along and are able to accomplish their tasks effectively.
  • Slide 46
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 46 Factors Aiding Team Cohesiveness Contains 5 to 12 people Members introduce selves and describe past work experience Competition against other teams Favorable appraisal from outsider Agreed-upon goals Frequent interaction
  • Slide 47
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 47 Resolving Team Conflict Disagreeing members analyze situation more closely Conflict = respectful and professional Hostile = seek compromise Dont try to avoid/ignore conflicts
  • Slide 48
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 48 Team Benefits Reduced turnover Reduced costs Increased production Increased quality Increased customer service Higher job satisfaction Harmonious work environment
  • Slide 49
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 49 Team Limitations Stressful Time-consuming No guarantee of effectiveness Unable to resolve conflict Lower productivity
  • Slide 50
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 50 Chapter Quiz 1. The main idea conveyed in Frederick Taylors findings was that a)most people are motivated only by money. b)people are motivated for a variety of reasons other than pay. c)people do not expect to get paid much for their work. d)employees biggest fear is that of losing their jobs. e)people expect to get paid much more than they are currently getting.
  • Slide 51
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 51 Chapter Quiz 2.Physiological needs concern an employees desire for a)security. b)survival. c)a sense of belonging. d)self-worth. e)self-direction.
  • Slide 52
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 52 Chapter Quiz 3.Goal-setting theory suggests that employees are more motivated a)to achieve goals that they and their manager have established together. b)to achieve goals that they establish on their own. c)when management empowers them to make their own decisions. d)when their expected outcomes or goals do not change over time. e)to achieve goals that management establishes and clearly communicates to employees.
  • Slide 53
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 53 Chapter Quiz 4.Job redesign is a type of a)flextime. b)telecommuting. c)job enlargement. d)job enrichment. e)job enhancement.
  • Slide 54
  • Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 | Slide 54 Chapter Quiz 5.The stage of team development in which the team begins to stabilize is called a) forming. b) storming. c) performing. d) norming. e) adjourning.