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Copyright ©2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Motivating and Satisfying Employees and Teams 10 | 1

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Chapter Ten

Motivating and Satisfying Employees and Teams10 | 1Copyright 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.1TopicsExplain what motivation is.Understand some major historical perspectives on motivation.Describe three contemporary views of motivation: equity theory, expectancy theory, and goal-setting theory.Explain several techniques for increasing employee motivation.Understand the types, development, and uses of teams.10 2What Is Motivation?The individual internal process that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior; the personal force that causes us to behave in a particular wayMoraleAn employees feelings about his or her job, superiors, and about the firm itselfHigh morale results from the satisfaction of needs or as a result of the job and leads to dedication, loyalty, and the desire to do the job wellLow morale leads to shoddy work, absenteeism, and high turnover rates10 3Historical Perspectives on MotivationScientific ManagementThe application of scientific principles to management of work and workersFrederick W. TaylorObserved workers who soldiered or worked slowly who feared losing their jobs if there were no workJob should be broken into separate tasksManagement determines the best way and the expected outputManagement chooses and trains the best-suited personManagement cooperates with workersPiece-rate system (pay per unit of output) is based on the belief that people work only for money10 4Taylors Piece-Rate SystemWorkers who exceeded their quota were rewarded by being paid at a higher rate per piece for all the pieces they produced

10 5Historical Perspectives on Motivation (contd)The Hawthorne StudiesObjective: to determine the effects of the work environment on employee productivity1st experiment: productivity increased for both the experimental and control groups after lighting was varied in the workplace2nd experiment: workers under a piece-rate system produced at constant ratesHawthorne ExperimentConclusions: human factors were responsibleWorkers had a sense of involvement by participating in the experimentGroups influenced output through workers desire for acceptanceHuman relations movementEmployees who are happy and satisfied are motivated to perform better10 6Historical Perspectives on Motivation (contd)Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsA sequence of human needs in the order of their importancePhysiological needssurvivalSafety needsphysical and emotional safetySocial needslove and affection and a sense of belongingEsteem needsrespect, recognition, and a sense of our own accomplishment and worthSelf-actualization needsto grow and develop and become all that we are capable of being10 7Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

10 8Historical Perspectives on Motivation (contd)Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene TheorySatisfaction and dissatisfaction are separate and distinct dimensionsMotivation factorsJob factors that increase motivation but whose absence does not necessarily result in dissatisfactionHygiene factorsJob factors that reduce dissatisfaction when present to an acceptable degree but that do not necessarily result in higher levels of motivation10 9Herzbergs Motivation-Hygiene Theory

10 10Historical Perspectives on Motivation (contd)Douglas McGregorSets of assumptions about managerial attitudes and beliefs regarding worker behaviorTheory XGenerally consistent with Taylors scientific managementEmployees dislike work and will function only in a controlled work environmentTheory YGenerally consistent with the human relations movementEmployees accept responsibility and work toward organizational goals if they will also achieve personal rewards10 11Theory X and Theory Y

10 12Historical Perspectives on Motivation (contd)Theory ZSome middle ground between Ouchis Type A (American) and Type J (Japanese) practices is best for American businessEmphasis is on participative decision making with a view of the organization as a family10 13The Features of Theory Z

10 14Historical Perspectives on Motivation (contd)Reinforcement TheoryBehavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeated, whereas behavior that is punished is less likely to recurReinforcement: an action that follows directly from a particular behaviorTypes of reinforcementPositive reinforcement: strengthens desired behavior by providing a rewardNegative reinforcement: strengthens desired behavior by eliminating an undesirable task or situationPunishment: an undesired consequence of undesirable behaviorExtinction: no response to undesirable behavior in order to discourage its occurrence10 15Contemporary Views on MotivationEquity TheoryPeople are motivated to obtain and preserve equitable treatment for themselvesEquity: the distribution of rewards in direct proportion to the contribution of each employee to the organizationWorkers compare their own input-to-outcome (reward) ratios to their perception of othersWorkers who perceive an inequity mayDecrease their inputsTry to increase outcome (ask for a raise)Try to get the comparison other to increase inputs or receive decreased outcomesLeave the work situation (quit)Switch to a different comparison other10 16Contemporary Views on Motivation (contd)Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom)Motivation depends on how much we want something and on how likely we think we are to get itImplies that managers must recognize thatEmployees work for a variety of reasonsThe reasons, or expected outcomes, may change over timeIt is necessary to show employees how they can attain the outcomes they desire10 17Expectancy Theory

10 18Contemporary Views on Motivation (contd)Goal-Setting TheoryEmployees are motivated to achieve goals they and their managers establish togetherGoals should be very specific, moderately difficult, and ones that the employee will be committed to achieveRewards should be tied directly to goals achievement10 19Key Motivation TechniquesIt takes more than a generous salary to motivate employees. Companies are trying to motivate employees by satisfying less tangible needs.Simple, low or no cost approaches such as:Celebrate birthdays and other important eventsNominations for a formal award programSupport flexible work schedulesPublicly post thank you letters from customers10 20Key Motivation Techniques (contd)Management by Objectivesmanagers and employees collaborate in setting goals, clarify employee roles10 21ADVANTAGES Motivates employees by actively involving themImproves communicationMakes employees feel like an important part of the organizationPeriodic review enhances controlDISADVANTAGESDoesnt work if the process doesnt begin at the top of the organizationCan result in excessive paperworkSome managers assign goals instead of collaborating on creating themGoals should be quantifiableKey Motivation Techniques (contd)Job enrichmentProvides employees with more variety and responsibility in their jobsJob enlargementThe expansion of a workers assignments to include additional but similar tasksJob redesignA type of job enrichment in which work is restructured to cultivate the worker-job match10 22Key Motivation Techniques (contd)Behavior modificationA systematic program of reinforcement to encourage desirable behaviorSteps in behavior modificationIdentify the target behavior to be changedMeasure existing levels of the behaviorReward employees who exhibit the desired behaviorMeasure the target behavior to check for desired changeIf no change, consider changing reward systemIf change has occurred, maintain reinforcement10 23Key Motivation Techniques (contd)FlextimeA system in which employees set their own work hours within employer-determined limitsTypically, there are two bands of timeCore time, when all employees are expected to be at workFlexible time, when employees may choose whether to be at workBenefitsEmployees sense of independence and autonomy is motivatingEmployees with enough time to deal with nonwork issues are more productive and satisfiedDrawbacksSupervisors jobs are complicated by having employees who come and go at different timesEmployees without flextime may resent coworkers who have it10 24Key Motivation Techniques (contd)Part-time workPermanent employment in which individuals work less than a standard work weekDisadvantage: often does not provide the benefits that come with a full-time positionJob sharingAn arrangement whereby two people share one full-time positionCompanies can save on expenses by reducing benefits and avoiding employee turnoverEmployees gain flexibility but may lose benefitsSharing can be difficult if work is not easily divisible or if two people cannot work well together10 25Key Motivation Techniques (contd)TelecommutingWorking at home all the time or for a portion of the work weekAdvantagesIncreased employee productivityLower real estate and travel costsReduced absenteeism and turnoverIncreased work/life balance and improved moraleAccess to additional labor poolsDisadvantagesFeelings of isolationPutting in longer hoursDistractions at homeDifficulty monitoring productivity10 26Key Motivation Techniques (contd)Employee empowermentMaking employees more involved in their jobs by increasing their participation in decision makingManagement must be involved to set expectations, communicate standards, institute periodic evaluations, guarantee follow-upBenefitsIncreased job satisfactionImproved job performanceHigher self-esteemIncreased organizational commitmentObstaclesManagement resistanceWorkers distrust of managementInsufficient trainingPoor communication between management and employees10 27Key Motivation Techniques (contd)Employee ownershipEmployees own the company they work for by virtue of being stockholdersDirectly reward employees for successBenefitsConsiderable employee incentiveIncreased employee involvement and commitmentObstaclesProblems between management and employees can still occur10 28Teams and TeamworkTeamsTwo or more workers operating as a coordinated unit to accomplish a specific task or goalTypes of teamsProblem-Solving Virtuoso Self-Managed Cross-Functional Virtual Stages of team development FormingStormingNormingPerformingAdjourning10 29Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Managed Teams

10 30Teams and Teamwork (contd)Roles within a teamTask-specialist roleSocio-emotional roleDual roleNonparticipant roleTeam cohesivenessFor a team to be successful, members must learn how to resolve and manage conflict10 31Teams and Teamwork (contd)Team conflict and how to resolve itMiddle ground resolution satisfies each party to some extentBenefits and limitations of teamsReduces turnover and costs, increases production, quality, customer service, job satisfactionReorganizing into teams can be stressful and time consuming with no guarantee it will develop effectively10 32Stages of Team Development

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