chapter 1 psychological science descriptive research

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  • Chapter 1 Psychological Science

    Descriptive Research

  • Types of Psychological ResearchDescriptive ResearchCorrelational ResearchExperimental Research

  • Types of Psychological ResearchDescriptive ResearchCorrelational ResearchExperimental Research

  • Types of Psychological ResearchDescriptive ResearchSurveyCase StudyNaturalistic ObservationCorrelational ResearchExperimental Research

  • DescriptionSurveyCommonly used in both descriptive and correlational researchtechnique for gathering the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of peopleusually by questioning a representative, random sample of people from a defined population

  • Aspects of A Survey Populationall the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

    SamplingHow respondents are selected may affect the outcome of a surveyA Random Sample is a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

  • Aspects of A SurveyWording EffectHow a question is worded and framed may affect the outcome of a surveyFalse Consensus Effecttendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

  • When wording effect attacks!

    End Womens Suffrage!

  • Since 9% said that Nader was the only candidate worth voting for, one would have expected him to get at least 9% of the vote in the 2000 election. He only got about 3%. What happened?There was a biased statistic because the sample wasn't randomly drawn from the population. A disproportionate number of Nader supporters participated in the poll in order to make him appear more viable as a candidate.

  • Can we conclude that United, American, and Delta are the worst airlines and Alaska, Southwest, and Continental are the best? Solution: No. The airlines that had the most complaints also had the most passengers.

  • This clipping from US News and World Report on 1/29/01 suggests that Alaskans are terrible parents. Is this true? Solution: The difference in the abuse rates probably stems from different definitions for abuse in the various states. For example, Alaska (the "worst" state) says that a child is abused if his or her health or welfare is harmed or threatened. Pennsylvania (the "best" state) defines it as a recent act or failure to act.

  • Can we conclude from the following diagram that it's safer to drive while under the influence? Solution: No. Drunk drivers have a fatality risk 7.66 times the norm, while non-drunk drivers have a risk only about .6 of the norm. Only a very small percentage of drivers in New York City drive while under the influence, but they account for a disproportionate number of accidents.

  • The following statistics suggest that 16-year-olds are safer drivers than people in their twenties, and that octogenarians are very safe. Is this true? Solution: No. As the following graph shows, the reason 16-year-old and octogenarians appear to be safe drivers is that they don't drive nearly as much as people in other age groups.

  • Surveys

  • DescriptionCase StudyPsychologists study one or more individuals in great depth in the hope of revealing things true of us allIs language uniquely human?

  • DescriptionNaturalistic Observationobserving and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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