chapter 1 - part 1 introduction to organic chemistry
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Mohd Zulkhairi Abdul Rahim Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgExt: 2090 H/P: 013-6779113Office: Lab InstrumentationCLB10803Analytical & Organic Chemistry
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTIONTO ORGANIC CHEMISTRYCHAPTER 1
Welcome to ChemistryThe study of the composition of matter and the changes it undergoes
The study of the composition of matter and the changes it undergoes
IS THIS WHAT YOU THINK?
The study of the composition of matter and the changes it undergoes
Chemistry is Life
Can you identify organic compounds from this picture?
Road surface (bitumen)Fuel in carTyre
What is Organic chemistry?
TOPIC 1.1Chemistry of Carbon
Some Brief HistoryMr Friedrich WhlerBorn: 31-Jul-1800Birthplace: Eschersheim, GermanyDied: 23-Sep-1882
He changed the belief that organic compounds could only be made by living things.Organic compounds are compounds that contain the element Carbon (C).Most organic compounds also contain hydrogen (H).Organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.
Q: Do all compounds containing carbon considered as organic compounds?
A: No. Chemists consider carbonates and oxides of carbon as INORGANIC compounds rather than organic.
Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compound.Basic for all life.Example : methane, DNA, urea, DDT (insecticide), penicillin , nicotine, aspirin etc..
But not all carbon compounds are organics.
Example : carbonate (CO32-), cyanide (CN-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO).
What is organic chemistry?
Why is it so important? Think about how organic compounds affect our daily life: Our clothes natural and synthetic fibers Our medicines Our food carbohydrates, proteins, triglycerides Oils, perfumes, paints, plastics, detergents, etc.
Typical organic compounds
have covalent bonds.have low melting points.have low boiling points.are flammable.are soluble in non-polar solvents.are not soluble in water.
A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding12
Some organic chemicals
Organic vs. Inorganic
Propane, C3H8, is an organic compound used as a fuel.
NaCl, salt, is an inorganic compound composed of Na+ and Cl- ions.
Inorganic chemistry is the study of the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the myriad organic compounds (carbon based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistryMany inorganic compounds are ionic compounds, consisting of cations and anions joined by ionic bonding. Examples of salts (which are ionic compounds) are magnesium chloride MgCl2, which consists of magnesium cations Mg2+ and chloride anions Cl; or sodium oxide Na2O, which consists of sodium cations Na+ and oxide anions O2.14
Comparing Organic and Inorganic Compounds
Naturally Occurred Organic CompoundsName Of OrganicCompoundsOriginUsageProteinsExample :a) Enzymesb) HormonesFrom animalsa) As a structural materials.b) As a biological catalyst and regulators.Fats and OilsExample :a) Triglyceride b) Paraffin Oils c) Almond OilsFrom animals and vegetablesTo store energy.VitaminsExample :A,B Complex, C, D, E and KFrom foodFor healthy growth and functioning.
Synthetic Organic CompoundsItemsExamplesUsagePlasticsPoly (ethene), Perspex.For packaging, plastic bags, as a substitute for glass.Medicines andDrugsTranquilizer, Analgesic and Bactericide.To treat tropical diseases such as Trypanosomiasis or Sleeping Illness and Malaria.PesticidesDichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane( DDT )To kill houseflies and other insects.DyesMethylene blueGive colour to the material.
Why carbon? A carbon atom forms four bondsCarbon atoms form stable bonds with other carbon atoms (i.e., the CC covalent bond is strong)Can form chains and even networks Examples: graphite and diamond
Position of Carbon
Chemical FormulasOrganic compounds can be complexA system is needed that shows structure. We want something that is easy to read. Molecular formula Empirical formula Structural formula Condensed formula Bond-line formula
Is a shorthand notation to represent the ratio of atoms of elements in a compound. 20
Molecular formulaActual number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
Empirical formulaSimplest ratio number of atoms of each element in a molecule.
Example: Glucose, C6H12O6C6H12O6Molecular formulaCH2OEmpirical formula
An emprical formula simplest ratio of atom of each element that made up a compound.21
Learning Check!1. Write the emperical formula for the following molecules:
glucose, C6H12O6Benzene, C6H6Oxalic acid, C2H2O4
2. After exercise, lactic acid is formed in the muscles, making a person tired. An analysis shows that lactic acid contains 40.0% C, 6.71% H & 53.5% O by weightCalculate the emperical formula of lactic acid.Calculate the molecular formula of lactic acid[Mr of lactic acid is 90.08; C:12 , H:1 , O:16]
Expanded @ Structural FormulaShow all atoms in the bondsBonds represents as linesExamples:
Condensed Structural Formula
A Type of line formatShorthand way of writing formulaList of atoms in order and tells how there are bound togetherExample:
Bond Line @ Skeleton Formula
Represent structure by showing bonds between carbons and atoms other than hydrogen.Atoms other than carbon and hydrogen are called heteroatoms.ExampleCH3CH2CH2CH3 is shown asCH3CH2CH2CH2OH is shown as
HHHHHHC2H6 Molecular formulaCH3Empirical formulaCH3CH3Condensed formulaStructural formulaExample: Ethane
Learning Check!Structural formulaExample: PentaneC
HHHHC5H12Molecular formulaCH3(CH2)3CH3orCH3CH2CH2CH2CH3Condensed formula
TOPIC 1.2 : Types of Organic CompoundCHAPTER 1
Types of Organic CompoundORGANIC COMPOUND
ALIPHATICALICYCLICAROMATICOPEN chains of carbon atoms. Unbranched or Branched Contain Single, Double or Triple bonds. Example: ethane (CH3CH3) ethene / ethylene (CH2=CH2) ethyne / acetylene (CHCH) CLOSE rings of carbon Atoms. Rings form the shape of POLYGON (triangle, square, rectangle or etc).CLOSE rings of carbon atoms. Contain a benzene ring. Example: Benzene
Types of Organic CompoundORGANIC COMPOUNDALIPHATIC
Compound that contains only single bond.
Example: alkaneCompound that contains multiple bond.
Example: alkene, alkyneC
TOPIC 1.3 : Types of ReactionCHAPTER 1
Type of Organic Reaction
Type of Organic Reaction: AdditionTwo substances react together to form a single substance.Addition of HBr to an alkene
Type of Organic Reaction: SubstitutionAn atom or a group (leaving group) in a molecule is replaced by another atom or group (nucleophile / electrophile). SN2 reaction
Hydroxide ion (nucleophile)(leaving group)BromobutaneButanolBromide ion
Type of Organic Reaction: EliminationRemoval of atoms or groups of atoms from a saturated molecule to form an unsaturated molecule.Dehydration of alcohol
CH3CH2CH=CH2 + H2OButene
Type of Organic Reaction: RearrangementMigration of an atom, a group of atoms or a bond from one atom to another within molecule to form its isomer.Tautomerism of keto-enol
Type of Organic Reaction: HydrogenationAddition of hydrogen to a multiple bond to form a single bond substance. Hydrogenation of alkane
Type of Organic Reaction: EsterificationAcid-catalyzed ester formation between alcohol and carboxylic acid.Fischer esterification
H2SO4refluxEthanoic acidEthanolEthyl ethanoate
Type of Organic Reaction: OxidationAn increase in the number of bonds between carbon and oxygen and/or a decrease in the number of carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Oxidation of methane
Type of Organic Reaction: HydrolysisChemical process in which a molecule is split into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water.
(CH3)3CBr + H2O
(CH3)3COH + HBrtert-Butyl bromidetert-Butyl alcoholHydrogen bromide