Chapter 1 Outline Chemistry Matter and Change Introduction to Chemistry.
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Chapter 1 OutlineChemistry Matter and ChangeIntroduction to Chemistry I. Branches of ChemistryChemistry -the study of matter and the changes it undergoes (particularly interested in energy changes)Organic Chemistry - the study of carbon containing compounds (once thought to be just the study of compounds having a living source) - now contains synthetic compounds like plastics Inorganic Chemistry- may contain some short carbon chained molecules but basically does not contain carbonPhysical chemistry- covers the topics of thermodynamics and kinetics as well as other topicsAnalytical Chemistry - deals with the components and composition of substancesBiochemistry - matter and processes of living organisms (proteins, fats, lipids, enzymes)D = mass/volumeII. Properties of MatterMass - has the property of inertia a) Inertia - the resistance to change of motion b) Weight - is the measurement of force of gravity between two objects Density - another property of matter how much matter is in a specific volumeEnergy - property of all matter that under the right conditions can do work a) potential - energy of position b) kinetic - energy of motionquestion - evaluate the picture to the right in terms of kinetic and potential energiesIII. Scientific MethodScience - is the search for knowledge a) pure science - gain knowledge for the sake of knowledge itself b) applied science - knowledge to solve a specific problemA systematic approachObserve - environment around you and ask a questionCollect data - may take notes then form aHypothesis - an initial educated guess why phenomena occursExperiment - to prove of disprove hypothesisAnalyze - evaluate the data collectedTheorize - after many experiments conclude that a cause an effect are likely - may be modified by new dataScientific law - after years of experiments no know exceptions to the theory occur IV. Designing a Good ExperimentAn experiment is a carefully controlled procedure that tests a hypothesis/ A good experiment hasa) an independent variable - one thing that is changed ..and is studied for its effect onb) the dependent variable - the factor that results of the independent variable -- is measured in the experiment c) a control - a standard of comparison for all the experimental entries d) constants - factors that are kept the same through the experiment ( everything that is possible to keep constant except for the independent variable should be kept the same)Constructive ResponseThree friends argue over which brand of microwave popcorn is best. Billy says that Big Pop is the tastier, Joe claims that Jiffy Pop is the best, while Sue insists that Red Devil is great!Design an experiment that will settle the dispute. Be sure to include a description of the experiment using the terms control, constant, independent and dependent variable.
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