Chapter 1 - Introduction to Chemistry Objectives Define Chemistry Differentiate between the 5 branches of Chemistry Apply the general plan in solving.
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- Chapter 1 - Introduction to Chemistry
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- Objectives Define Chemistry Differentiate between the 5 branches of Chemistry Apply the general plan in solving chemistry word problems
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- SECTIONS 1.1 Chemistry 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist 1.4 Problem Solving in Chemistry
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- 1.1 Chemistry Matter anything that takes up space and has mass Chemistry the study of matter and the changes that matter undergoes Organic Chemistry the study of all chemicals that contain carbon Inorganic Chemistry the study of chemical that do not contain carbon Biochemistry the study of processes that take place in organisms Analytical Chemistry the study of composition of matter Physical Chemistry the area that deals with the mechanism, the rate and the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change Pure Chemistry - the pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake Applied Chemistry research that is directed toward a practical goal or application Technology a system of tools, mechanisms, methods to solve a problem, improve a problem or change a problem Vocabulary - Matter - Chemistry - Organic chemistry - Inorganic Chemistry - Biochemistry - Analytical Chemistry - Physical Chemistry - Pure Chemistry - Applied Chemistry - Technology Video What is Chemistry?
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- Branches of Chemistry Inorganic Organic Analytical Physical Biochemistry
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- Identify some of the components of this picture and match it with one of the Chemistry branches
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- Mass vs Weight Mass: a measure of the amount of matter that an object contains. (SI unit kilogram, kg) Weight: The force with which the earth pulls on an object. (SI unit Newton, N)
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- Organic or Inorganic ? Sulfuric Acid H 2 SO 4 Methane CH 4 Hydrochloric Acid HCl EthaneC 2 H 6
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- Science What? Why? How? When?
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- Science and Technology Science Pure Does not necessarily have an application. Technology Applied Has practical applications in society. Engineering.
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- 1.2 Chemistry Far and Wide Macroscopic objects are seen without a microscope Microscopic - objects that cannot be seen without microscope Biotechnology an applied science that uses techniques to produce or process different things Pollutant - a material found in air, soil or water that hurts living things Vocabulary - Macroscopic - Microscopic - Biotechnology - Pollutant
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- Energy is the ability to do work.
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- Nature of Energy Energy is involved when: a bird flies. a bomb explodes. rain falls from the sky. electricity flows in a wire.
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- Production of Energy Hydroelectric plants use running water to generate electricity, however they may flood nearby lands and can disrupt the normal flow of water, both of which negatively affect the environment.
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- Wind power is increasingly being used as a clean source of renewable energy. Turbines harvest wind on wind farms and generate electricity.
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- Solar power is a promising, renewable energy resource than can be turned into electricity, and it is used in many toys and even home heating.
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- Many other alternative energy sources like geothermal power, which draws upon the earths natural heat, and biomass, which produces an alternative to gasoline, are being considered in the movement away from fossil fuel dependence.
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- Conservation of Energy In our everyday lives, we can also work to conserve energy. Insulating, turning off lights and only using appliances like dishwashers when they are full are just some of the ways people can limit energy use in their homes. Also, carpooling, bicycling, and taking public transportation are effective energy-saving ideas.
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- What is Biotechnology? Biotechnology is the manipulation of living organisms and organic material to serve human needs. Examples: Yeast in bread making and alcohol production Use of beneficial bacteria (penicillin) to kill harmful organisms Cloning of plants and animals Artificial insemination
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- 1750 B.C. Origins of biotechnology emerge in methods of food production and plant and animal breeding Use of bacteria to produce cheese (food preservation) Use of natural enzymes in yogurt Use of yeast to produce bread Use of fermentation for producing wine and beer
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- Biotechnology Industry Focuses on a variety of research areas including: Health/medicine Food science Environmental science Agriscience
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- 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist Scientific Method - a logical approach to the solution of a scientific problem Observation the use of senses to obtain an information Hypothesis an educated guess Experiment a procedure used to verify the hypothesis Manipulated variable the variable that you change during an experiment Responding variable the variable that is observed during the experiment Theory - a well tested explanation for a broad set of observations Scientific Law a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments Vocabulary - Scientific Method - Observation - Hypothesis - Experiment - Manipulated variable - Responding variable - Theory - Scientific law
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- Steps of the Scientific Method Problem/Question 1. Problem/Question: Develop a question or problem that can be solved through experimentation.
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- Steps of the Scientific Method Formulate a Hypothesis 3. Formulate a Hypothesis: Predict a possible answer to the problem or question. Example: If soil temperatures rise, then plant growth will increase.
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- Steps of the Scientific Method Experiment 4. Experiment: Develop and follow a procedure. Include a detailed materials list. The outcome must be measurable (quantifiable).
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- Steps of the Scientific Method Collect and Analyze Results 5. Collect and Analyze Results: Modify the procedure if needed. Confirm the results by retesting. Include tables, graphs, and photographs.
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- Steps of the Scientific Method Conclusion 6. Conclusion: Include a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis. Make recommendations for further study and possible improvements to the procedure.
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- Steps of the Scientific Method Communicate the Results 7. Communicate the Results: Be prepared to present the project to an audience. Expect questions from the audience.
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- Problem/Question John wonders if the amount of sugar used in the recipe will affect the size of the bread loaf?
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- Caution! Be careful how you use effect and affect. Effect is usually a noun and affect, a verb. The effect of sugar amounts on the rising of bread. How does sugar affect the rising of bread?
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- Observation/Research John researches the areas of baking and fermentation and tries to come up with a way to test his question. He keeps all of his information on this topic in a journal.
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- John talks with his teacher and she gives him an Experimental Design Diagram to help him set up his investigation.
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- Formulate a Hypothesis After talking with his teacher and conducting further research, he comes up with a hypothesis. If more sugar is added, then the bread will rise higher.
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- Hypothesis The hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Note: These variables will be defined in the next few slides.
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- Independent Variable The independent, or manipulated variable, is a factor thats intentionally varied by the experimenter. John is going to use 25g., 50g., 100g., 250g., 500g. of sugar in his experiment.
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- Dependent Variable The dependent, or responding variable, is the factor that may change as a result of changes made in the independent variable. In this case, it would be the size of the loaf of bread.
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- Experiment His teacher helps him come up with a procedure and list of needed materials. She discusses with John how to determine the control group.
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