chapter 1 “ introduction to chemistry”
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DESCRIPTIONChapter 1 “ Introduction to Chemistry”. Section 1.1 Chemistry. OBJECTIVES: Identify five traditional areas of study in chemistry. Section 1.1 Chemistry. OBJECTIVES: Relate pure chemistry to applied chemistry. Section 1.1 Chemistry. OBJECTIVES: Identify reasons to study chemistry. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry
Chapter 1Introduction to Chemistry
#1Section 1.1ChemistryOBJECTIVES:Identify five traditional areas of study in chemistry.#Section 1.1ChemistryOBJECTIVES:Relate pure chemistry to applied chemistry.#Section 1.1ChemistryOBJECTIVES:Identify reasons to study chemistry.#What is Chemistry?Chemistry is the study of the composition of matter (matter is anything with mass and occupies space), its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes.Has a definite affect on everyday life - taste of foods, grades of gasoline, etc.Living and nonliving things are made of matter.#Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes such as burning fuels.C2H5OH + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 3 H2O + Energy Reactants Products
#5 Major Areas of ChemistryAnalytical Chemistry- concerned with the composition of substances.Inorganic Chemistry- primarily deals with substances without carbonOrganic Chemistry- essentially all substances containing carbonBiochemistry- Chemistry of living thingsPhysical Chemistry- describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching); involves lots of math!Boundaries not firm they overlap and interact #
- Page 8#What is Chemistry?Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledgeApplied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing leads to an application* Optical fibers (SiO2)* Aspirin (C9H8O4) - to relieve pain
#Why Study Chemistry?Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry explains our worldWhat in the world isnt Chemistry?Helps you make choices; helps make you a better informed citizenA possible career for your futureUsed to attain a specific goalWhat did we describe as pure and applied chemistry?#Why Study Chemistry?Figure 1.4, page 5What benefits do each of the pictures represent in improving our lives?Give examples in your daily life that involve use of chemistry, and things that do not?#Section 1.2Chemistry Far and WideOBJECTIVES:Identify some areas of research affected by chemistry.#Section 1.2Chemistry Far and WideOBJECTIVES:Describe some examples of research in chemistry.#Section 1.2Chemistry Far and WideOBJECTIVES:Distinguish between macroscopic and microscopic views.#Chemistry Far and WideChemists design materials to fit specific needs velcro (Patented in 1955)perfume, steel, ceramics, plastics, rubber, paints, nonstick cooking utensils, polyester fibersTwo different ways to look at the world: macroscopic and microscopic#15Chemistry Far and WideEnergy we constantly have greater demandsWe can conserve it; use wiselyWe can try to produce more; oil from soybeans to make biodieselfossil fuels, solar, batteries (that store energy rechargeable?), nuclear (dont forget pollution!)#16Chemistry Far and WideMedicine and Biotechnology-Supply materials doctors use to treat patients spatial arrangements of protein moleculesSynthesis of vitamin C, penicillin, aspirin (C9H8O4)alloys for artery transplants and hipbones Gene technology -bacteria producing insulin (DNA chemical structure)#Chemistry Far and WideAgricultureProduce the worlds food supplyUse chemistry for better productivity soil, water, weedsplant growth hormonesways to protect crops; insecticides (honeybees)disease resistant plants#Chemistry Far and WideThe Environmentboth risks and benefits involved in discoveries- which outweightsPollutants need to be 1) identified and 2) preventedLead paint was prohibited in 1978; Leaded gasoline? Drinking water?carbon dioxide, ozone, global warming#
- Pge 1688.2%440,000After lead was banned in gasoline and public water supply systems, less lead entered the environment.Lets examine some information from a graph.#Section 1.3Thinking Like a ScientistOBJECTIVES:Identify the steps in the scientific method.
#Section 1.3Thinking Like a ScientistOBJECTIVES:Explain why collaboration and communication are important in science.#The Scientific MethodA logical approach to solving problems or answering questions.Starts with observation- noting and recording information and factshypothesis- a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment#Steps in the Scientific Method1. Observations (uses your senses)a) quantitative involves numbers = 95oFb) qualitative is word description = hot2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas)- possible explanation for the observation, or educated guess- If [ I do this ], then [ this ] will happen.3. Performing experiments (the test)- gathers new information to help decide whether the hypothesis is valid#24Steps in the Scientific Method4. Analysis (What happened )- what data did you obtain and what does it mean5. Conclusion (the WHY)-You have two options for your conclusions: based on your results, either (1) you CAN REJECT(2) you SUPPORT the hypothesis. This is an important point. You can not PROVE the hypothesis with a single experiment
#Scientific Methodcontrolled experiment- designed to test the hypothesisWe gather data and observations by doing the experimentModify hypothesis - repeat the cycle#Scientific MethodWe deal with variables, or factors that can change. Two types:1) Manipulated variable (or independent variable) is the one that we change2) Responding variable (or dependent variable) is the one observed during the experimentFor results to be accepted, the experiment needs to always produce the same result#Outcomes over the long termTheory (Model)- A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon not able to be provedNatural Law (or Scientific Law)- The same observation applies to many different systems; summarizes results- an example would be: the Law of Conservation of Mass
#Law vs. TheoryA law summarizes what has happened.A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened this changes as new information is gathered.
- Page 22Using your senses to obtain informationHypothesis is a proposed explanation; should be based on previous knowledge; an educated guessThe procedure that is used to test the hypothesisA well-tested explanation for the observations; cannot be proven due to new discoveriesTells what happened#Collaboration / CommunicationWhen scientists share ideas by collaboration and communication, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome#Problem Solving in ChemistryWe are faced with problems each day, and not just in chemistryA solution (answer) needs to be foundTrial and Error may work sometimes?But, there is a method to problem solving that works better, and these are skills that no one is born knowing they need to be learned.#Problem Solving in ChemistryEffective problem solving usually involves two general steps:Developing a planImplementing that planThe skills you use to solve a word problem in chemistry are NOT different from those techniques used in shopping, cooking, or planning a party.#Solving Numeric ProblemsMeasurements are an important part of chemistry; thus many of our word problems involve use of mathmaticsWord problems are real life problems, and sometimes more information is presented than needed for a solutionFollowing skills presented will help you become more successful#Solving Numeric ProblemsThe three steps we will use for solving a numeric word problem are:AnalyzeCalculateEvaluateThe following slides tell the meaning of these three steps in detail.Lets learn how to ACE these numeric word problems!#Solving Numeric ProblemsAnalyze: this is the starting pointDetermine what are the known factors, and write them down on your paper!Determine what is the unknown. If it is a number, determine the units neededPlan how to relate these factors- choose an equation; use table or graphThis is the heart of successful problem solving techniques it is the PLAN#Solving Numeric ProblemsCalculate: perform the mathematicsIf your plan is correct, this is the easiest step. Calculator used? Do it correctly!May involve rearranging an equation algebraically; or, doing some conversion of units to some other units.#Solving Numeric ProblemsEvaluate: the finishing stepIs it reasonable? Make sense? Do an estimate for the answer, and check your calculations.Need to round off the answer?Do you need scientific notation?Do you have the correct units?Did you answer the question?
#Solving Conceptual ProblemsNot all word problems in chemistry involve doing calculationsNonnumeric problems are called conceptual problems ask you to apply concepts to a new situationSteps are:Analyze and 2) SolvePlan needed to link known to unknown, but no checking units or calculationsDo Conceptual Problem 2.1 on page 46#End of Chapter 1
Introduction to Chemistry#