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  • 1. KJC 353BASIC WATER & WASTEWATER ENGINEERINGPART 2 : WATER SUPPLY & SEWERAGEUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau Pinang CarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJanuary2007 April2007SemesterJanuary2007

2. CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau Pinang CarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJanuary2007 April2007SemesterJanuary2007 3. Factors Affecting Water Uses Factors Affecting Water Demand Historical Development Of Water SupplyEnvironmental Issues in Planning For Water SupplyAgencies for Water Supply in Malaysia Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau Pinang CarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJanuary2007 April2007 SemesterJanuary2007 4. WATER SUPPLYINTRODUCTIONImportance of water supply system Water Crisis - water supply can be disrupted due to drought Drought can lead to severely polluted water sources beyond handling capacity of the treatment plants Poor monitoring and maintenance in the distribution of water supply large amount of losses and waste in distribution system Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006 SemesterJuly2006 5. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLY Factor Affecting Water UsesCategoryRemarksHouseholdWater used for cooking, drinking, general(Domestic)cleaning, sanitation and garden wateringUsed in industries process water which endup in products or water used for cooling,Industrialdiluting, mixing, quenching, rinsing,backwashing and scrubbing to controlemissions Include water in shops, shopping centre,Commercialhotels, recreational facilities such as themeparks, restaurants and private offices. Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau Pinang CarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineeringSemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 6. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYFactor Affecting Water UsesCategory Remarks Water used in public buildings such as gov.Institutionaloffices, schools and universities, hospitals and correctional facilities (jail, drugs, etc) Water used for irrigation system for padiAgricultural planting, water used at livestock farmWater used to water public parks, fire fighting, general cleaning of public areas and municipalOthers facilities and water losses due to leakages and illegal tapings Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006 SemesterJuly2006 7. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYFactor Affecting Water DemandsPOPULATION SIZECHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATIONINDUSTRIAL & COMMERCIAL ACT. WEATHER & CLIMATEMONITORING & MAINTENANCE OF WATER SUPPLY Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006 SemesterJuly2006 8. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND Population Size Water demand directly related to the population size Large city like KL have higher water demand Permatang Pauh smaller water demand Population density affect the design of the distribution system - the dictate the size of storage tanks & mains size of distribution Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006 SemesterJuly2006 9. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND Characteristics of Population Composition of the population in terms of economic well being will influence the daily activities Affluence (wealth) of the population and social norm with regards to water uses also have bearing on the amount of water used High incomes households demand higher uses of washing machines, dishwashers, swimming pools, garden watering, car washing Low income only for cooking and washing clothes and dishes Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006 SemesterJuly2006 10. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND Industrial & Commercial Activities Large number and high intensity of industrial activities would demand more water compared to cities which are residential and commercial Shah Alam or Mak Mandin in Penang exert higher water demand compared to towns in Alor Setar and Kapit, Sarawak Water demand (industry) depend on the type of industry, product, plant size and level of water quality required Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006 SemesterJuly2006 11. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMAND Industrial & Commercial ActivitiesSteel Manufacturing Plant Exert large demand for water, used as cooling water compared to electronic equipment assembling plantWater Quality Impact on the design of water treatment plants Quality of cooling water in power generation plant need not to be the same quality of water used in domestic Sultan Salahuddin power plant in Kapar uses sea water for cooling not necessary for authorities to consider this in the design of public water supply system Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006 SemesterJuly2006 12. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMANDWeather & ClimateHot climate and dry season would inducehigher water demand for waterDomestic water use in tropical countriesmore than cold temperate climate like UK,Germany, Canada, etc Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau Pinang CarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineeringSemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 13. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER DEMANDMonitoring & Maintenance Water Supply System To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the system Scheduled monitoring and regular inspection of distribution system can reduced water losses due to pipe breaks and illegal tapping Repair of broken pipes help reduce amount of unaccounted and non revenue water Non revenue water 45% of total water produced at treatment plants If the these losses can be made available to consumers Reduce the pressure of finding new sources or need to adopt basin transfer in event of water shortage due to prolonged droughtUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 14. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyEarly civilisation rivers main watersupplyCities are build near rivers KL communities evolved near rivers for water Population increases and river bank are overcrowded, people start moving to larger place This creates the need or water to transfer from source to usersUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 15. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyRomans build aquaduct to bring water toseveral location in cities Collect water from these locations and carry back to their homes Supply individual homes must have invention of pipes But water treatment did not go for any water treatmentUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 16. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyAs population grows amount of wasteincreased Leads to contamination of water supply Earliest treatment filtration and sedimentation improves the appearance But not the disease carrier water borne diseases cholera, typhoid, dysentry and viral hepatitisUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 17. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyFound that cities with sand filters lesssusceptible to these diseasesEarly 1900s UK & USA used sandfilters as part as their treatmentSand filters removed most of MO fromwaterThen chlorination was incorporated bywater authorities remains until todayUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 18. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyWater supply objectives not only to providesufficient amount of waterWater supply objectives also to ensure watersupplied follows the quality characteristics; Clear & free from suspended matter Palatable colorless, odorless and free of unpleasant taste Safe & free from disease carriers or harmful chemicals Reasonably soft no excessive concentration of soap consuming mineral saltsUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 19. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyProperly designed and managed watersupply schemes tremendous benefitsWell engineered water supply schemes tocontrol of many diseases, increasedagricultural production and greatlyimproved the quality of human livesUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 20. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water SupplyProperly designed and managed watersupply schemes tremendous benefitsWell engineered water supply schemes tocontrol of many diseases, increasedagricultural production and greatlyimproved the quality of human livesUniversiti Teknologi MARAPulau PinangCarolineMarajanKJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering SemesterJuly2006 November2006SemesterJuly2006 21. INTRODUCTION TO WATER SUPPLYHistorical Development Of Water Supply Dams & ReservoirsOr/andWells Water intake Points ConduitsPumping PlantsTreatment Plants Storage ReservoirsDistribution mains and fittings Pumping Stations User Storage Universiti Teknologi MARAPulau Pinang CarolineMarajan KJC353BasicWater&WastewaterEngineering

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